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Chemistry Notes (Periodic Table)

Chemistry Notes (Periodic Table)

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Chemistry notes on the Periodic table
Chemistry notes on the Periodic table

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Published by: Teo Jia Ming Nickolas on Oct 15, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/06/2014

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Nickolas Teo
The periodic table
1.
 
P
eriodic trends
y
 
The
P
eriodic Table is an arrangement of the elements in an order of increasing protonnumber
y
 
E
lements in the same period have the same number of electron shells
o
 
The period number shows the number of electron shells
o
 
A
s we move left to right, there is a decrease in metallic properties
y
 
E
lements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons
o
 
The group number shows the number of electrons
o
 
The elements have similar chemical properties due to the same valenceelectrons
o
 
A
s we go down a group,
 
P
roton number increases
 
A
toms get bigger
 
The elements have more metallic properties, as it is easier to loseelectrons
y
 
The group number of an element shows the number of valence electrons it has.Group number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0Ionic charge +1 +2 +3 tend to from covalentcompounds-2 -1 Do not fromcompounds
2.
 
Group properties
y
 
A
lkali metals
o
 
They are Group 1 metals.
o
 
They are soft, have low melting and boiling points and low densities
o
 
A
s we go down the group, the melting and boiling point decreases, while densitygenerally increases, and reactivity increases
o
 
They are very reactive, due to the ease of losing one valence electron to attainnoble gas configuration.
 
They are powerful reducing agents
o
 
They can react with cold water, giving a metal hydroxide and hydrogen
 
Intensity of the reaction increases as we use more reactive metals
 
S
odium gives a yellow flame, potassium, a lilac flame
y
 
H
alogens
o
 
They are Group 7 metals, being non-metals and existing as diatomic molecules
o
 
They have low melting and boiling points, and are coloured
o
 
A
s we go down the group, melting and boiling points increase, the colour of halogens becomes darker, and reactivity decreases

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