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Table Of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Pressurised Releases
2.1. The Nature of Releases
2.2. Hole Sizes
2.3. Models Used
2.4. Liquid Releases
2.4.1. Liquid Pool Formation
2.4.2. Droplet Atomisation, Rainout and Evaporation (DARE)
2.5. Gas/Vapour Releases
2.5.1. Noise
2.6. PRV Release
2.7. Two Phase Jet Releases
2.7.2. Time Dependent Gas Releases from Pipelines
2.8. Two Phase Blowdown
2.8.1. Introduction
2.8.2. The Two Phase Blowdown Problem
2.8.3. Homogeneous Equilibrium Model
2.8.4. Experimental Releases
2.9. Subsea Releases
2.9.1. Bubble Plume
3. Fire Modelling
3.1. Pool Fire
3.1.1. Size Of Liquid Pool
3.1.2. Length Of The Flame
3.1.3. Angle Of Flame Tilt
3.2. Trench Fire Model
3.2.1. Basic Flame Geometry
3.2.2. Length Of The Flame
3.2.3. Flame Drag and Tilt
3.2.4. Height Of The Clear Flame
3.2.5. Surface Emissive Power
3.3. Gas/vapour Jet Fire
3.3.1. Flame Stability
3.4. Generalised Jet Fire
3.4.1. Model Flame Shape
3.5. Other Fire Modelling Packages
3.5.1. CHIC - compartment fires
3.5.2. SEAFIRE - fires on the sea
3.5.3. CLOUDF - cloud or flash fires
4. Receiver of Thermal Radiation
4.1. Receiver of Radiation
4.1.1. Calculation of view factor, ΦΦΦΦ
4.1.2. Atmospheric Transmissivity, ττττ, for Hydrocarbon Fires
4.1.3. Atmospheric Transmissivity, ττττ, for Hydrogen Flames
4.1.4. Radiation Heat Flux from Pool Fires
4.1.5. Radiation Heat Flux from Jet Fires (Chamberlain Model)
4.1.6. Thermal Radiation from Generalised Jet Fire Model
4.2. Thermal Radiation Hazard to People
4.2.1. Design for Operation in Emergency Systems
4.2.2. Probit Concept
4.3. Thermal Response of Structures to Fire
4.3.1. Equilibrium Surface Temperature
4.3.2. Temperature Rise with Time of Vessel/Pipe Wall Exposed
4.4. Radiation Dose to a Retreating Receiver (Escape)
5. Vessel Modelling
5.1. Heat Up
5.1.1. Introduction
5.1.2. Physical Processes
5.1.3. HEATUP
5.1.4. Mass transfer out of the vessel
5.1.5. Mass transfer through pressure relief valves
5.1.6. Change in composition
5.1.7. Mass and heat transfer within the vessel
5.1.8. Mass and heat transfer within the liquid phase
5.1.9. Total heat energy transfer
5.1.10.Mass and heat transfer between the liquid and gas
5.1.11.Vessel failure
5.1.12.Extra Considerations
5.2. Vessel Burst Model
5.2.1. Energy of Vessel Burst
5.2.2. Vessel Burst Pressure
5.2.3. Blast Wave
5.2.4. Scaled Distance
5.2.5. Scaled Pressure at Vessel
5.2.6. Pressure Decay
5.2.7. Impulse at Receptor
5.2.8. Vessel Type & Elevation
5.2.9. Gas Dispersion With Fireball
5.3. BLEVE
5.3.1. TNO BLEVE
5.3.2. SHELL Research Ltd BLEVE Model
5.3.3. Safety Distance (probit variable)
6. Dispersion Modelling
6.1. Meteorology
6.1.1. Stability Classes
6.1.2. The Lapse Rate
6.1.3. Surface Roughness
6.1.4. Wind
6.1.5. Sampling Times
6.2. Types of Dispersion
6.3. Dispersion Models
6.3.1. Gaussian Model
6.3.2. HEGADAS
6.3.3. AEROPLUME
6.4. Flammability
6.5. Toxicity
6.5.1. Toxicity Data
6.5.2. Protection by being In-House
7. Explosion Modelling
7.1. The Explosion Process
7.2. Vapour Cloud Explosion Characteristics
7.3. Hazard Assessment of Explosions
7.3.1. Congestion Assessment Method (CAM)
7.3.2. SCOPE Model
7.3.3. TNT Model
7.3.4. TNO Multi-Energy Method
7.4. Explosion Damage Effects
7.5.2. EXSIM - CFD
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FRED 5.1 Technical Guide

FRED 5.1 Technical Guide

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Published by Shine Antony

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Published by: Shine Antony on Oct 15, 2010
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