thus during the same period, becomes established as acrop during the 2
millennium B.C., i.e. the LateBronze Age. Millet, like spelt, may well have reachedGreece via the north (Valamoti 2007) as rich millet findsare encountered earlier at sites further north than Greece(Nesbitt and Summers 1988). Free-threshing cereals aremore prominent during the Bronze Age, encountered asstored grain, as is indicated by the rich storerooms of Assiros (Jones
1986).A wide range of pulse species is encountered at Ne-olithic assemblages from Greece, though, unlike cereals,it is only the seeds of pulses that are preserved amongthe debris of burnt houses or cooking accidents. Lentils(
sp.) are by far the most common species in thiscategory. Other species used in the Neolithic includegrass pea (
, fig.3), pea and bitter vetch(
). These species continue into the BronzeAge while new ones are added, too, as is the case withcereals. Thus the range of pulse species used during theBronze Age increases with the addition of Celtic Beanon insular and mainland Greece and of two more
species, Spanish vetchling (
) andCyprus vetch (
), evidenced so far only in theAegean islands as the archaeobotanical remains fromAkrotiri on Santorini and Knossos on Crete suggest(Jones 1984, 1992; Sarpaki andJones 1990).Besides cereals and pulses, other species are fre-quently encountered in archaeobotanical assemblagesas rich concentrations, implying their use after harvest-ing. Linseed is one such example, found both at Ne-olithic and Bronze Age sites. The seeds of flax (
) are edible as such but are also rich in oil.The seeds may well have been used untreated as foodbut also for extracting oil, edible when cold water isused for this process. Terebinth nuts (
) may also have been used for the oil content of their seeds during the Neolithic while, during theBronze Age, species such as
sp. (fig.4),opium poppy (
) and gold of pleasure (
) could have been used for oil extraction. All of these plants are well attested in the north of Greece,while in the south the olive (
) prevails inthe archaeobotanical record, starting from the Final Ne-olithic and increasing during the course of the BronzeAge (Hamilakis 1996; Sarpaki 2003). As these specieshave other uses, too, it is difficult to establish whetherthey were used for their oil-rich seeds or fruits
, orin the form of extracted oil or both.
Einkorn glume bases from mid 6
millennium B.C. Apsalos,Northern Greece, after Valamoti 2009.
sp. agglomeration of charred seeds found at Ar-chondiko, Northern Greece, end of 3
millennium B.C., afterValamoti 2009.
Charred pulse species found at Arkadiko, Northern Greece:lentil (a), grass pea (b), after Valamoti 2009.