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Çelik Kesme Birleşimlerinin döngüsel davranışı ve sismik dizaynı - Cyclic Behavior and Seismic Design of Steel Shear Connections - Hüseyin Gören

Çelik Kesme Birleşimlerinin döngüsel davranışı ve sismik dizaynı - Cyclic Behavior and Seismic Design of Steel Shear Connections - Hüseyin Gören

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Çelik Kesme Birleşimlerinin döngüsel davranışı ve sismik dizaynı - Cyclic Behavior and Seismic Design of Steel Shear Connections - hüseyin Gören
Çelik Kesme Birleşimlerinin döngüsel davranışı ve sismik dizaynı - Cyclic Behavior and Seismic Design of Steel Shear Connections - hüseyin Gören

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Published by: H.Goren on Jul 15, 2008
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05/09/2014

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 148 
Cyclic Behavior and Seismic Design of Steel Shear Connections
Judy Liu, Ph.D.Assistant Professor, School of Civil EngineeringPurdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1284,USAAbolhassan Astaneh-Asl, Ph.D., P.E.Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710, USA
 
ABSTRACT
An experimental and analytical program was undertaken to determine thecontribution of typical shear, or simple, connections, including the floor slab, tothe lateral resistance of steel structures. Through the experimental program, thecyclic behavior of typical shear connections was established. In the analyticalprogram, this information was used for the development of models of moment-rotation response. These efforts have resulted in tools for establishing the role of simple connections in the seismic behavior of steel buildings.
INTRODUCTION
In an effort to establish the contribution of simple connections to the lateral resistance of steelstructures, a combined experimental and analytical program was undertaken. Results from theexperimental program suggested that simple connections, including the effects of the floor slab,behave as partially restrained connections. Information on their cyclic behavior was used for development of models of their moment-rotation response. Presented here is an overview of the test program, experimental results, and basic parameters from the moment-rotation models.
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 
The test program consisted of sixteen full-scale cyclic tests of simple connections. Specimenswere designed as if from a building with W14x90 columns at 7.62 m (25’-0”) spacing, withW18x35 beams framing into W24x55 girders. Connection details included typical 4-, 6- and 8-bolt shear tab connections, a supplemental seat angle, a stiffened seat, pre-80’s shear tabs,and a top-and-bottom angle connection. Variations included the presence of the floor slab, thetype of concrete used, the amount of reinforcement in the floor slab, and the presence of concrete within the column web cavity. Figure 1 shows a typical specimen with slab. Thedimensions of the specimen were 7.62 m (25’-0”) and 3.05 m (10’-0”) pin-to-pin for the beamsand columns, respectively. The slab was 2.44 m (8’-0”) across. The floor was a 158 mm (6-1/4”) concrete slab on 1 mm (20 gage) metal deck with 76.2 mm (3”) ribs. The slabreinforcement included welded wire fabric for temperature and shrinkage, as well as nominalreinforcement across the girders for crack control. With nominal shear studs, the beams andgirders were 20-30% composite. All bolts were ASTM-A325N. Table 1 gives details for testspecimens. For more information on connection details, the reader is referred to Liu andAstaneh-Asl (1).
 
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 Figure 1. Typical specimen with floor slabThe test set-up was designed for the application of gravity loads and lateral drift (Figure 2). Thecolumn was pinned at the top and the bottom. Pin-ended struts at the ends of the girdersprovided vertical support while allowing for horizontal translation. Two actuators, one on eachbeam, were used to simulate the initial gravity loads on the system. The actuator at the top of the column applied increasing, cyclic, lateral displacements (SAC (2)). The drift angle wasdefined as the displacement at the top of the column divided by the column height, pin to pin.Table 1. Test Specimens
Floor Slab# Beam/Girder Bolts onWebSeat / FlangeConnectionShear StudsSlabReinforcementConcreteinColumn1A W18x35 4 - 22 mm None N.A. N.A. N.A.2A W24x55 6 - 22 mm None N.A. N.A. N.A.3A W18x35 4 - 22 mm None 610 mm o.c. Nominal LW4A W18x35 4 - 22 mm None 610 mm o.c. D16 (No. 5) LW5A W18x35 None Stiffened 610 mm o.c. Nominal LW6A W24x55 6 - 22 mm None 305 mm o.c. Nominal LW7A W24x55 6 - 22 mm None 305 mm o.c. Nominal None8A W24x55 6 - 22 mm 203x102x19mm 305 mm o.c. Nominal LW1B W18x35 3 - 25 mm None N.A. N.A. N.A.2B W24x55 4 - 25 mm None N.A. N.A. N.A.3B W18x35 4 - 22 mm None 610 mm o.c. Nominal NW4B W24x55 6 - 22 mm None 610 mm o.c. D13 (No. 4) NW5B W24x55 4 - 25 mm None 305 mm o.c. Nominal NW6B W24x55 6 - 22 mm None 305 mm o.c. Nominal NW7B W33x118 8 - 22 mm None 203 mm o.c. Nominal NW8B W24x55 None 203x102x19mm 305 mm o.c. Nominal NW
N.A.=Not Applicable; o.c.=on center; LW=lightweight concrete; NW=normal-weightconcrete
 
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CYCLIC BEHAVIOR OF TYPICAL SHEAR CONNECTIONS
In general, the tested connections showed significant moment capacity, ductile behavior andlarge drift rotations. Cyclic behavior tended to be characterized by bolt slip, yielding of steel,elongation of the bolt holes, and other ductile mechanisms.Figure 2. Test set-upThe shear tab connections with slabs (3A, 4A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 4B, 6B, 7B) acted as partially-restrained connections with maximum moment capacities on the order of 30 - 60% of the plasticmoment capacities of the connected beams and girders. However, the slab contribution wastypically lost after 0.04 radians due to the crushing of the concrete slab at the column. Theconnections then behaved similarly to bare steel shear tab connections (1A, 2A), with bolt slip,yielding in the shear tab and elongation of the bolt holes. Omitting the concrete in the columnweb cavity caused a 20% drop in maximum lateral load. The type of concrete and the additionof reinforcement around the column did not have such a significant effect on capacity. Bindingof the beam flanges and column flanges at large rotations led to increases in stiffness andstrength, as well as fractures in the shear tabs. Shear tab connections were able to reach largelevels of drift while still carrying the applied gravity loads. For example, the 6-bolt shear tabconnections with slab typically reached 0.11 radians of drift. Figure 3 shows the 4-bolt shear tab connection without slab (1A) at 0.14 radians of drift. Figure 4 shows a 6-bolt shear tab withslab at 0.03 radians and at the end of the test.

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