Wormhole TheoryRonnie Chen of Hampton University wrote in a recent article that “Although Einstein'sGeneral Relativity theory allows wormholes to exist, physicists have been trying for decades to construct them mathematically without breaking any other laws of physics.Most researchers agree that wormholes require "exotic matter", stuff that is repelled bygravity, rather than attracted, but some have claimed ways around that problem. Now areport in the 27 July
shows that all wormholes, no matter how cleverly constructed,require exotic matter; a condition that many in the field are already working to satisfy.Matt Visser of Washington University in St. Louis, states that “The good news aboutLorentzian wormholes is that after about ten years of hard work we cannot prove thatthey don't exist." But a publication five years ago (J.L. Friedmann, K. Schleich, and D.M.Witt,Phys. Rev. Lett.
, 1486 (1993)) showed that a large class of wormholes requireexotic matter to keep them open. As stated, researchers haven't given up, however,because exotic matter, the magic ingredient which has less energy than a pure vacuum,actually
exist, at least in small amounts, thanks to the ghostly virtual particles incertain quantum physics experiments.However, no one knows if enough exotic matter can exist in a concentration denseenough in a spatial area to create a large enough wormhole to constitute multi-universaltravel or trans-universal travel. An attempt to sidestep the problem, a number of theorists have claimed to construct special wormholes that do not require exotic matter.In their
paper, Visser and David Hochberg, of the Laboratory for SpaceAstrophysics and Fundamental Physics in Madrid, Spain, show that all wormholes, eventime-dependent and asymmetric ones, require exotic matter, which in turn requiresquantum mechanical effects. Visser is quoted as saying "You cannot just get away withnormal classical physics," Visser and Chen blame many of the contrary claims on thewidespread confusion about the precise definition of a wormhole and the concept of "passing through" it.Their approach was to rigorously define a wormhole "throat" (the narrowest point) andshow that because light rays spread out as they emerge from it, there must be a kind of "antigravity", the hallmark of exotic matter. In the process they found that timedependent wormholes actually have
throats, one for each direction of traffic, andthey say that was one source of the confusion: A theoretical traveler could paradoxicallypass the middle of the wormhole without actually reaching the throat for their direction.Part of the problem is the lack of a good physical picture for a dynamic wormhole, whichis a complicated four-dimensional object; the usual image we see displayed inmagazines and on the web only works for wormholes that don't change in time. (seebelow)Eanna Flanagan, of Cornell University has stated that the requirement of exotic matter has been "pretty well understood in the community," despite the number of contrarypapers and the lack of an air-tight proof. But the new work covers the bases quite