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Wormhole Theory 03Ratings: (0)|Views: 333|Likes: 1

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/39463391/Wormhole-Theory-03

10/16/2010

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Wormhole TheoryRonnie Chen of Hampton University wrote in a recent article that “Although Einstein'sGeneral Relativity theory allows wormholes to exist, physicists have been trying for decades to construct them mathematically without breaking any other laws of physics.Most researchers agree that wormholes require "exotic matter", stuff that is repelled bygravity, rather than attracted, but some have claimed ways around that problem. Now areport in the 27 July

PRL

shows that all wormholes, no matter how cleverly constructed,require exotic matter; a condition that many in the field are already working to satisfy.Matt Visser of Washington University in St. Louis, states that “The good news aboutLorentzian wormholes is that after about ten years of hard work we cannot prove thatthey don't exist." But a publication five years ago (J.L. Friedmann, K. Schleich, and D.M.Witt,Phys. Rev. Lett.

, 1486 (1993)) showed that a large class of wormholes requireexotic matter to keep them open. As stated, researchers haven't given up, however,because exotic matter, the magic ingredient which has less energy than a pure vacuum,actually

does

exist, at least in small amounts, thanks to the ghostly virtual particles incertain quantum physics experiments.However, no one knows if enough exotic matter can exist in a concentration denseenough in a spatial area to create a large enough wormhole to constitute multi-universaltravel or trans-universal travel. An attempt to sidestep the problem, a number of theorists have claimed to construct special wormholes that do not require exotic matter.In their

PRL

paper, Visser and David Hochberg, of the Laboratory for SpaceAstrophysics and Fundamental Physics in Madrid, Spain, show that all wormholes, eventime-dependent and asymmetric ones, require exotic matter, which in turn requiresquantum mechanical effects. Visser is quoted as saying "You cannot just get away withnormal classical physics," Visser and Chen blame many of the contrary claims on thewidespread confusion about the precise definition of a wormhole and the concept of "passing through" it.Their approach was to rigorously define a wormhole "throat" (the narrowest point) andshow that because light rays spread out as they emerge from it, there must be a kind of "antigravity", the hallmark of exotic matter. In the process they found that timedependent wormholes actually have

two

throats, one for each direction of traffic, andthey say that was one source of the confusion: A theoretical traveler could paradoxicallypass the middle of the wormhole without actually reaching the throat for their direction.Part of the problem is the lack of a good physical picture for a dynamic wormhole, whichis a complicated four-dimensional object; the usual image we see displayed inmagazines and on the web only works for wormholes that don't change in time. (seebelow)Eanna Flanagan, of Cornell University has stated that the requirement of exotic matter has been "pretty well understood in the community," despite the number of contrarypapers and the lack of an air-tight proof. But the new work covers the bases quite

explicitly by showing that requirement in a new and interesting way that supplementsprevious work, while also clarifying errors in other research.This is a huge discovery from where I stand.What I have been playing around with is rather simple; Most physicists I have spokento, openly acknowledge the existence of millions of wormholes are most likely occurringat the Planck level. We don’t notice them because they are so small. In fact most of them exist at a sub-atomic level; so what if, two tiny strings approach each other. Muchlike what happens in the music store, when you strum an acoustic guitar string, all theother guitars begin to resonate their strings at the exact frequency of the guitar stringyou strummed. So IF, as the two strings approach each other, they begin to matchfrequencies, until they intertwine at resonance. This could be the genesis of theformation of a wormhole. If there is spatial area between two universes, and it doesn’thave to be much, it is very probably that this spatial area is made up of exotic matter,separating the universes under normal conditions. But if, as these wormholes form, theexotic matter is introduced into the forming throats, they will stabilize into a fullyconnected conduit, gapping the spatial separation, be it space, time or what have you.The Type I string theory has vibrating strings like the rest of the string theories. Thesestrings vibrate both in closed loops, so that the strings have no ends, and as

openstrings

with two loose ends. The open loose strings are what separates the Type I stringtheory from the other four string theories. This was a feature that the other stringtheories did not contain (The Type IIA and Type IIB string theories also contain openstrings, however these strings are bound). But then I also take into accountsupergravity.Supergravity theories were classified by Werner Nahm. In 10 dimensions, there are onlytwo supergravity theories, which are denoted Type IIA and Type IIB. This similar denomination is not a coincidence; the Type IIA string theory has the Type IIAsupergravity theory as its low-energy limit and the Type IIB string theory gives rise toType IIB supergravity. The heterotic SO(32) and heterotic E8×E8 string theories alsoreduce to Type IIA and Type IIB supergravity in the low-energy limit. This suggests thatthere may indeed be a relation between the heterotic/Type I theories and the Type IItheories.

String theory includes both open strings, which have two distinct endpoints, and closedstrings making a complete loop. The two types of string behave in slightly differentways, yielding two different spectra. For example, in most string theories, one of theclosed string modes is the

graviton

, and one of the open string modes is the

photon

.Because the two ends of an open string can always meet and connect, forming a closedstring, there are no string theories without closed strings. But no one has suggested thatstrings can also pair, form a duality, and co-resonate. And still better, there is nothingreally in any of the theories that prevents this from occurring.Edward Witten outlined the following relationship:The Type IIA supergravity (corresponding to the heterotic SO(32) and Type IIA stringtheories) can be obtained by dimensional reduction from the single unique eleven-dimensional supergravity theory. This means that if one studied supergravity on aneleven-dimensional spacetime that looks like the product of a ten-dimensionalspacetime with another very small one-dimensional manifold, one gets the Type IIAsupergravity theory. (And the Type IIB supergravity theory can be obtained by using T-duality.) However, eleven-dimensional supergravity is not consistent on its own, it justdoesn’t make sense at extremely high energy, and likely requires some form of completion. It seems plausible, then, that there is some quantum theory (M-theory) ineleven-dimensions which gives rise at low energies to eleven-dimensional supergravity,and is related to ten-dimensional string theory by dimensional reduction. Dimensionalreduction to a circle yields the Type IIA string theory, and dimensional reduction to a linesegment yields the heterotic SO(32) string theory. String theory has its origins in thedual resonance model that was first proposed by Gabriele Veneziano which describedthe strongly interacting hadrons as strings. But strings are associated with subatomicparticles, but what if the string like manifestation is a more universal concept?It is a fundamental fact of the physics of light that, the more energy a photon carries, thesmaller a wavelength it has. For instance, visible light has a wavelength of around a fewhundred nanometers, while the much more energetic gamma rays have a wavelengthabout the size of an atomic nucleus. The Planck energy and the Planck length arerelated in that a photon would need to have a Planck-scale energy value in order tohave a wavelength as small as the Planck length.To make things even more complicated, even if we could create a photon this energetic,we could not use it to precisely measure something at the Planck scale as it would beso energetic that the photon would collapse into a black hole before it returned anyinformation. Thus, many physicists believe that the Planck scale represents some sortof fundamental limit on how small the distances we can probe are. We have of coursetalked at length about this. The Planck length may be the smallest physically meaningfulsize scale there is, in which case (and Allen will groove on this) the universe can bethought of as a tapestry of “pixels” each a Planck length in diameter.The Planck energy scale is almost unimaginably large, while the Planck size scale isalmost unimaginably small. The Planck energy is about a quintillion times larger than

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