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Research Methodology: part 8: Statistical techniques for processing and analysis

# Research Methodology: part 8: Statistical techniques for processing and analysis

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This presentation material in PowerPoint is the eight of an eleven-part package designed and used regularly for teaching research methodology. The processing and analysis of data collected is an important step in research. Often researchers either under process or over interpret the data. The processing and analysis of qualitative data differ substantially from that of quantitative data except where scaling techniques are used to convert qualitative data into quantitative data. Qualitative data involves subjectivity, feel and flavour of the situation and hence consumes more time and efforts for collection as well as processing. As it is not amenable for statistical manipulation, extrapolation of findings is difficult for qualitative data. It also calls for sensitive interpretation and creative presentation.

In general, levels of measurement (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio) determine the kind of statistical technique to be used for processing data. The processing as such involves editing, coding, classification and tabulation of data in order to achieve data reduction and presentation. The analysis of data (both descriptive and inferential or statistical) involve exploratory analysis, computation of certain indexes or measurers, searching for certain patterns of relationships and trends, estimating values of unknown parameters, testing of hypothesis for interferences, and graphical presentation.

Appropriateness of statistical techniques also depends on number and type of variables employed by researcher. It is very important to understand the merits and limitations of various bi-variate and multivariate measures as well as differences among measures of association, correlation, and cause and effect. Important techniques like chi-square test, coefficients of regression, multiple and partial correlations, index numbers, time series analysis, ANOVA, ANOCOVA, discriminate analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis are largely under used in research studies.
This presentation material in PowerPoint is the eight of an eleven-part package designed and used regularly for teaching research methodology. The processing and analysis of data collected is an important step in research. Often researchers either under process or over interpret the data. The processing and analysis of qualitative data differ substantially from that of quantitative data except where scaling techniques are used to convert qualitative data into quantitative data. Qualitative data involves subjectivity, feel and flavour of the situation and hence consumes more time and efforts for collection as well as processing. As it is not amenable for statistical manipulation, extrapolation of findings is difficult for qualitative data. It also calls for sensitive interpretation and creative presentation.

In general, levels of measurement (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio) determine the kind of statistical technique to be used for processing data. The processing as such involves editing, coding, classification and tabulation of data in order to achieve data reduction and presentation. The analysis of data (both descriptive and inferential or statistical) involve exploratory analysis, computation of certain indexes or measurers, searching for certain patterns of relationships and trends, estimating values of unknown parameters, testing of hypothesis for interferences, and graphical presentation.

Appropriateness of statistical techniques also depends on number and type of variables employed by researcher. It is very important to understand the merits and limitations of various bi-variate and multivariate measures as well as differences among measures of association, correlation, and cause and effect. Important techniques like chi-square test, coefficients of regression, multiple and partial correlations, index numbers, time series analysis, ANOVA, ANOCOVA, discriminate analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis are largely under used in research studies.

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03/18/2014

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