The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the National Defense University, the Department of Defense, or theU.S. Government. All information and sources for this paper were drawn fromunclassified materials.
Dr. Mark Drapeau
is an Associate Research Fellow at the Center for Technology and National Security Policy at the National Defense University. Prior to this, he was anAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science and TechnologyPolicy Fellow in National Defense and Global Security at the Department of Defense,and a National Institutes of Health Ruth L. Kirschstein Postdoctoral Research Fellow at New York University. Dr. Drapeau holds a B.S. in biology from the University of Rochester, and a Ph.D. in ecology and evolutionary biology from the University of California, Irvine.
Dr. Linton Wells II
is a Distinguished Research Professor at the Center for Technologyand National Security Policy, and serves as the Force Transformation Chair at the National Defense University. Prior to coming to NDU he served as the Principal DeputyAssistant Secretary of Defense (Networks and Information Integration), the Acting DODChief Information Officer, the and the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense(Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence). Dr. Wells holds a B.S. in physics and oceanography from the U.S. Naval Academy, and an M.S. in mathematicalsciences and a Ph.D. in international relations from The Johns Hopkins University. He isalso a graduate of the Japanese National Institute for Defense Studies in Tokyo.