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HCOP Research Proposal for Creatine Julian Nwoko

HCOP Research Proposal for Creatine Julian Nwoko

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Published by Julian.Nwoko
This is the Official Research Proposal paper for my group's HCOP PE 2008 project.
This is the Official Research Proposal paper for my group's HCOP PE 2008 project.

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Published by: Julian.Nwoko on Jul 15, 2008
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Research Proposal
Effects of Creatine on the Pulsation and Regeneration ratesof 
 Lumbriculus variegatus
By Julian Nwoko
Introduction/Background
Creatine seems to be one of our generation’s most-used health supplements. AlthoughCreatine supplements were first studied in the early 20
th
Century, eight decades passed before itfully broke into the commercial market in the early 90’s. Today, its main use is the increase of muscle efficiency and storage potential. For those reasons, it is most popular amongst athletesand bodybuilders ranging from minor athletes to Olympic ones. This large-scale use of Creatinegave us the idea to test its direct effect on the vascular system on certain organisms such as
 Lumbriculus variegatus
.We plan on introducing
 Lumbriculus variegatus
to elevated levels of Creatine to observeany major effects on their rates of pulsation and regeneration. Our environmental constantswould be the spring water that the worms would be immersed in, and room conditions thatthey’ll be subjected to, such as temperature. The independent variable in our study would be thevarious concentrations of Creatine that the worm samples would be subjected to. The dependentvariable would, then, be the rates of pulsation and regeneration. With our experiment we also plan to examine the effect of dose gradients on our dependent variables.
Literature Review
The book observed the processes of water monitoring. It formally stated that a commonway of testing the toxicity of and aquatic biome was to test the effects of the spring water on
 Lumbriculus variegatus
and various species of arthropods.
 
They conducted a study that tested thetoxicity of various pesticides and heavy metals. Prior to their study, they concluded that theCalifornia Blackworm would be appropriate for the study, due to the fact that they were moresensitive the metals and pesticides
i
They made a key point within their abstract: "Creatine kinase catalyses the reversibletransphosphorylation of creatine by ATP." They continue to explain the cellular effects of Creatine on the rates of ATP production. Creatine could triple the duration of active exertion or strength of the exertion. This article was most important because it attempts to explained themechanism that powers the effects Creatine on organisms. I was most intrigued to find thatCreatine also existed in the body, naturally.
1
 
Research Proposal
This article was most important because they also had to worry about the pulsation ratesof the Black worms. They tested the effects of different Dissolved Oxygen concentrations on therates. I enjoyed this article because it was essentially an article that formally modeled what wewere asked to do. Their test material required the same measurement method as my group does.This was model to show the basic format that our project should have taken.
Hypothesis
If California Black Worms (
 Lumbriculus variegatus
) are sensitive to elevated Creatinelevels, then their pulsation rates and regeneration rates would increase with increasing, non-lethalconcentrations of Creatine.
Methods
The first part of our experiment involves the testing of the direct effect of Creatine on the pulsation rates of the California Black Worms. Materially, we would need a sizeable populationof worms, dissecting microscopes, Creatine supplements, spring water samples, pipettes, Petridishes, and other various lab equipment. We would begin by preparing the control and Creatinehabitats for the worms’ inhabitance. Finally, we’d separate the groups into a 6-worm groups.The Control groups would be immersed in standard spring water for ten and twentyminutes. The test groups would be also immersed in either 1.5 µM or 3.0 µM aqueous solution of Creatine for the same time periods. Afterwards their pulsation rates per minutes would beobserved and recorded. Following the end of this procedure the worms would be discarded, inaddition to the unused and used solutions.The second part of our experiment involves the testing of the direct effect of Creatin onthe regeneration rates of California Black Worms. We would need a sizeable population of worms, dissecting microscopes, Creatine supplements, spring water samples, pipettes, Petridishes, razor blades, 3 mL wellplates, and other standard lab equipment.We would begin again by preparing the control solutions and the 1.5 µM or 3.0 µMaqueous solution of Creatine. Following this preparations, 2 mL of each solution would be poured into each well of each treatment-specific wellplate. Twelve worms would be subjected toeach treatment. The worms would be cut into intermediate-length anterior and posterior segmentsto be placed into corresponding parts of each well.The worms would be immersed in these wells. The wellplates would be left for a week toallow the worms to grow under the influence of their environment. After the week, the lengths of 
2
 
Research Proposal
new growth would be measured, recorded, and compared to the control. Following this, all of theused and unused material would be discarded.
Timeline
Thursday, June 26 – Conduct and complete the first part of the experiment. Record dataon Creatine vs. Pulsation Rates.
Thursday, July 03 – Begin second part of the experiment. Place worm segments in wellsto regenerate for a week.
Thursday, July 10 – Record the amount of worm growth. Finish experiment. Beginanalysis of the data.
Discussion/Problem:
Since Creatine has come onto the market, there has been ongoing research to ensure thesafety of the popular supplement. With this experiment, we hope to pinpoint any specific hazardsthat Creatine-usage or over-dosage has on the vascular system, perhaps revealing any potentialhazard to people with heart conditions. Due to lack of experience with such supplements, we canonly speculate as to its direct effects on the California Black Worms.
Working Bibliography
Andres, Robert H., Angélique D. Ducray, and Uwe Schlattner. "Functions and Effects of Creatinein the Central Nervous System." Brain Research Bulletin 76.4 (2008): 329-343. AcademicSearch Premier. EBSCO. West Virginia University, Morgantown. 1 July 2008. Keyword:Creatine.Eaton, J. G., P. R. Parrish, and A. C. Hendricks. Aquatic Toxicology: Third Conference - Stp 707.3rd ed. Vol. 1. ASTM International, 1980. Aquatic Toxicology: Third Conference - Stp 707. 1July 2008<http://books.google.com/books?id=ND5mOkvURDoC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPP1,M1>.Mattson, Vincent R., Russell J. Hockett, Terry L. Highland, Gerald T. Ankley, and David R.Mount. "Effects of Low Dissolved Oxygen on Organisms Used in Freshwater Sediment ToxicityTests." Chemosphere 70.10 (2008): 1840-1844. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. WestVirginia University, Morgantown. 1 July 2008. Keyword:
 Lumbriculus variegatus
.
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