5. Note the lowest proportional gain at whichcycling is sustained. This is the ultimateproportional gain PGu.6. Time one complete process cycle, frompositive peak to positive peak, in minutes.This is the ultimate period Tu.7. Determine controller adjustments from thetable below.
Controller Tuning Constants
TYPE OF CONTROLLERTUNINGPARAMETERP PI PD* PID
Proportional Gain(PG)0.5PGu0.45PGu0.71PGu0.6PGuIntegral(TI – minutes)--- 0.83Tu--- 0.5TuDerivative(TD – minutes)--- --- 0.15Tu0.125Tu* Not from the original Ziegler-Nichols Paper
B. Ziegler-Nichols Open Loop Method
1. Bring the process to the desired setpointon manual control.2. Change the valve position a small amount
V (%). The change should be largeenough to produce a measurableresponse in the process but not largeenough to drive the process beyond thenormal operating range. A 5% valvechange is a good starting point.3. Measure C and L (see Figure 4) on theprocess response curve.4. Calculate:
C V PGu
5. Determine the controller settings from theprevious table.
Figure 4 Process Response CurveC. Limitations
Tuning constants listed in the table are based onexperience with typical processes. A number of common processes may show non-typicalresponses, including liquid level and liquid flowcontrol, but the tuning constants usually workfairly well. On any process the initial results of Ziegler-Nichols tuning may not produce quarter decay response and it may be necessary toreadjust the proportional gain, integral, or derivative to obtain the desired result. However,Ziegler-Nichols usually results in a response closeto quarter decay so only minor readjustmentsshould be necessary.It is often found that PGu and Tu will change if tuning is repeated at a different setpoint or under different load conditions. This can occur as aresult of non-linearity in valves or transmitters or changing throughput in the process.Consequently, optimum control response can beattained only with a particular set of conditionsand can be expected to change – to becomeslower or more oscillatory – as conditions change.This indicates the need for a safety factor in thecontroller tuning or the use of adaptive gaincontrol.
Low Gain Tuning for Flow Control
Although Ziegler-Nichols tuning may not workparticularly well for flow control, this is not aserious problem. Flow control response,particularly liquid flow, is usually fast enough sothat tuning by trial and error requires little time.One method is to set the proportional gain to alow setting (usually 0.2) and then adjust theintegral time to obtain quarter decay or other desired response. Results should be close to anyfaster response obtained with a differentcombination of proportional gain andintegral, and should be more than fastenough for most process requirements assatisfactory results are usually obtainedwith one setting.
For a step change in the processvariable, the derivative mode adds animpulse component to the controller output. The magnitude of the impulse isrelated to the derivative gain. The rate atwhich the impulse decays is related to the ratio of the derivative time and the derivative gain. Thefactory configured value for the derivative gain is10 and does not normally need to be changed.