Guidelines on Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis India
Filariasis is the common term for a group of diseases caused by parasitic nematodes belongingto superfamily Filarioidea. Adult worms of these parasites live in the lymphatic system, cutaneoustissues or body cavity of the humans and are transmitted through vectors. Filariasis caused bynematodes that live in the human lymph system is called
Lymphatic Filariasis (LF)2.CAUSATIVE ORGANISMS
Three nematode parasites causing LF in human are
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi
. Of these, only
are found in India. In mainlandIndia,
transmitted by the ubiquitous vector,
hasbeen the predominant infection contributing to 99.4% of the problem in the country. The infectionis prevalent in both urban and rural areas. The vector species breeds preferably in dirty andpolluted water.
infection has been reported earlier from some rural areas in seven states viz.,Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Assam and West Bengal. However,its prevalence is now reportedly restricted to rural areas of Kerala and the infection disappearedin some pockets in other states.
Mansonia (Mansonioides) annulifera
is the principal vector while
M. (M). uniformis
is the secondary vector for transmission of
infection. The breeding ofthese mosquitoes is associated with aquatic plants such as
Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia auriculata,Salvinia molestes, Eichhornia speciosa,
infections in mainland India exhibit nocturnal periodicity ofmicrofilariae. In 1974-75, diurnal sub-periodic
infection was detected among aborigines,inhabiting Nicobar Group of Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
group ofmosquitoes were incriminated as the vectors for this infection, formerly known as
Aedes (Finlaya) niveus
3.LIFE CYCLE OF THE PARASITE
The adult parasite worms, male and female, live in the lymph vessels and lymph nodes by makingnest in the dilated lymphatics. The adult worms survive for about 5-8 years and sometimes for as longas 15 years. After mating, the female worm parturates millions of microfilariae which finally migrate
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