Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines3
0501001502002500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90load angle [°el]
T [ N m ]
with solid bridgewithout solid bridge
Fig. 4. Torque vs. load angle of both designs.
It is shown that the utilization of the electrical machine is better using a V-magnet shape with a solid bridge between themagnets. The main reasons for the higher utilization are thesmaller and consequently higher saturated paths for leakageflux when still achieving the mechanical robustness of the rotor at overload speed. Nevertheless, the rotor design does not meetthe requirements as the results show that torque ripple andcogging torque increase with the better torque performance. Itis also to be mentioned that a solid bridge between the PMsresults in a higher cross-coupling effect .III.
LECTROMAGNETIC DESIGN PROCESS FOR THE ROTOR
To simplify the design process for rotors with magnet polesin V-shape, an electromagnetic investigation is carried out. Adesign procedure (see Fig. 5) is proposed wherein at first themachine is designed as a reluctance machine. In other wordsthe V-shape is investigated without the influence of the PMflux. After optimizing the reluctance torque in terms of torqueripple and mean value of the produced torque, the magnets areadded to the FEM model and the whole torque performance isinvestigated. It is expected that the design process is lesscomplex by this method instead of optimizing both torquecomponents at the same time. If the design process still doesnot reveal the expected results, a further step could be added tothe process. This optional step is the investigation of the PMtorque component without the influence of reluctance torque.
Investigation of reluctance torque
As an example, a machine design with 20 poles and 24 slotsis chosen. For this pole and slot combination very low coggingtorque and torque ripple caused by the PM flux is expected .The parameters wmag and
are designated as degrees of freedom for the investigation of reluctance torque. The size of the PM slots is kept constant. The two parameters will beadjusted with the aim to maximize the reluctance torque whileobtaining a small torque ripple. At first a known configurationis chosen and the torque versus rotor position is calculated.
Fig. 5. Proposed electromagnetic design process.
The parameters were adjusted to obtain a high SaliencyRatio with the rotor design and consequently a high reluctancetorque. In this example the iterative optimization was stoppedat the seventh step (see Fig 6). From step 1 to step 7 thereluctance torque was increased by 34% while the TorqueRipple Factor was decreased by 8%. For better evaluation of torque ripple T
, the Torque Ripple Factor is used in thiscontext.(1)The resulting rotor design parameters after all 7 iterationsare shown in Tab. 3. This rotor design is used for the further steps of the design process.
Fig. 6. Iterative optimization of reluctance torque.TABLE III
EOMETRIC DATA OF ROTOR MODEL
Symbol Value Symbol Value
Proposedgeometryforrotor laminationwithV-magnetshapeOptimizationof reluctancetorque performanceoptional: optimizationof PM-torqueperformanceOptimizationof full-torque performanceRotor geometrywithV-magnetshape
T T TRF
0,020,040,060,080,0100,0120,01 2 3 4 5 6 7Design Step
T [ N m ]
[ N m
] ; T R F [ % ]
TorqueTorque RippleTorque Ripple Factor