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Design Rotor v-Shape Permanent Magnets-Good

Design Rotor v-Shape Permanent Magnets-Good

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05/30/2013

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Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines Paper ID 908978-1-4244-1736-0/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE1
Design Considerations for Rotors with EmbeddedV-Shape Permanent Magnets
Steffen Hahlbeck Dieter GerlingDaimler AG Inst. For Elec. Drives, Univ. of Federal Defense Munich
Steffen.Hahlbeck@daimler.com
 
 Dieter.Gerling@unibw.de
 
 Abstract-
This paper looks into the mechanical andelectromagnetic design for rotors with embedded magnets of Permanent-Magnet-Synchronous Machines. In a study it has beeninvestigated in which way a solid bridge between the permanentmagnets improves the mechanical stability of the system and if ithas an influence on the electromagnetic performance. In thesecond part a new design process for the rotor is introduced. Theaim of this design process is to decouple the calculation of thereluctance torque from the permanent magnet torque and toreduce the complexity of the electromagnetic design for the rotor.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 Electrical machines as synchronous machines withembedded permanent magnets in their rotor (permanent-magnet-synchronous machines, PMSM) are commonly usedfor electrical drives in automobiles with hybrid or fullelectrical drives. For this purpose the PMSM is used in a verylarge speed range from 0 to 15.000 rpm. Arranging the permanent magnets (PM) in a V-magnet shape is a goodsolution for this kind of application as it produces a highreluctance torque next to the PM torque. This leads to anadvantage in efficiency as the field weakening current neededabove rated speed is also torque-producing. Additionally, itdecreases the dependency of the design on temperaturevariations according to the temperature dependency of the PMflux. Since the used Rare Earth Magnets have a great effect onthe machine costs it is advantageous to reduce the neededmagnet volume per torque. This is a motivation to produce ahigh share of torque through the reluctance effect.The aim of this paper is to set rules for designing a rotor with V-shape-magnets with low leakage flux within the rotor,which is mechanically robust at maximum speed and has a lowtorque ripple while fulfilling the torque and power requirements. Therefore it was necessary to carry outmechanical and electromagnetic calculations for different rotor designs, which have been realized in this study by the FiniteElements Method (FEM).II.
 
M
ECHANICAL
D
ESIGN
C
ONSIDERATIONS
 
 A.
 
 Introduction
The design of the PM pole in V-shape has many geometricdegrees of freedom (see Fig. 1). With single-layer design it is possible to have a high share of reluctance torque on the produced torque (Saliency Ratio of 2 to 4 [6]). An alteration inone parameter of the pole design can result in a variation of thereluctance torque as well as the PM torque. That is why it isdifficult to predict in detail which alteration is causing whicheffects on each torque component. Additionally to theelectromagnetic design it is necessary to review the mechanicalrobustness of the rotor geometry at maximum speed plus therequired safety factor. The mechanical robustness of the rotor often contrasts the needs of the electromagnetic design in termsof leakage flux. A mechanically optimized design could resultin a low utilization of the PM flux and therefore leads to highcosts for the PMs. In the end one has to find a compromise tofulfil both requirements.
rotorsurface
 
 M a g n e t
Bridge(airorsolid)w
mag
α
a_0X
2
LMBetaMBetaB
B
Rad1Rotor outer radiusRad3Stator outer radiusGapAirgaplengthL
Fe
Stack lengthZNumber of slots pNumber of pole pairsBetaMPM ArcBetaBFlux-Barrier ArcX
2
Width of bridge between magnet pocket and rotor surfacea_0Width of bridge between magnets
α
PM angleLMThickness of PM (in direction of magnetization)w
mag
Width of PM
B
Radius of Flux-Barrier Rad1
Fig. 1. Geometry and parameters of magnet pole with magnets in V-shape.
 
Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines2 
 B.
 
Modelling 
In the first part it is investigated which effects a solid bridge between the magnets building a V-shape has on the torque performance of the electrical machine and on the mechanicalrobustness of the rotor. A simple machine design withV-magnet shape is chosen (see Fig. 1). In Tab. 1 the geometricdata of the model and the chosen materials are summarized. AFEM model is built to perform the mechanical as well as theelectromagnetic calculations. Forces of electromagnetic originand temperature effects were neglected in these simulations[3]. The yield is indicated by planar von Mises stress.
TABLE I
G
EOMETRIC DATA AND MATERIALS FOR
FEM
MODEL
 
Symbol Value Symbol Value
 Rad1
108.5 mm
 p
8
 Rad3
145 mm
 Z 
24
Gap
1 mm
wmag 
13 mm
 LM 
3,5 mm
 L
 fe
 
70 mm
a_0
0,5 mm
Material Material property Value
M330-35AP Bending strength
350 N/mm²
 E-modulus
190000 N/mm²
 NdFeB 210/250h Bending strength
250 N/mm²
 E-modulus
150000 N/mm²
C.
 
Mechanical Calculations
According to the geometric data in Tab. 1 two different rotor geometries are built. One model is built without a bridge between the magnets; the other one has the solid bridge. Thespacing between the magnets (a_0) stays equal. Stresssimulations are done with FEM at the overload speed of 8640 rpm. At this speed the yield stress of the electrical steelshould not exceed 350 N/mm². Calculations are performed for  both models. The length of X
2
is adjusted until the permittedyield stress is kept.In Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 the von Mises stress at maximum speedis shown. The resulting length of X
2
for the model with a solid bridge between the magnets is 0.82 mm. This is in contrast tothe model without the solid bridge where a length of 1.75 mmis required for X
2
. With these values the resulting area for theleakage flux in each model is calculated. This is carried out bymultiplying X
2
with the active length. The model with solid bridge has one more path which is the solid bridge between themagnets. However, the model with the solid bridge reaches itsmechanical robustness with 61 % of the leakage flux areacompared to the model without this bridge.
 D.
 
 Electromagnetic Calculations
In a second step the electromagnetic calculations with thetwo models were carried out. For both designs theelectromagnetic torque for different load angles (see Fig. 4),the induced phase voltage and the cogging torque werecalculated. In Tab. 2 the results are shown.
Fig. 2. Stress results at 8640 rpm for design without solid bridge.Fig. 3. Stress results at 8640 rpm for design with solid bridge.
The torque performance is 9% higher when reducing thearea for leakage flux in the rotor by using a solid bridge between the PMs building the V-shape. But at the same timethe torque ripple and cogging torque increase as well. Thecomparison of the induced voltages shows that the design withsolid bridge couples more permanent magnet flux with thestator due to the lower leakage flux and the higher saturation of the leakage flux paths. Consequently, the utilization of the PMflux is better when using a solid bridge between the magnets.
TABLE II
R
ESULTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CALCULATIONS
 
QuantityDesign withoutsolid bridgeDesign withsolid bridgeDifference
Maximum Torque
MAX 
214 Nm 233 Nm19 Nm+9 %
Torque Ripple
 RP 
65,8 Nm
pp
80,1 Nm
pp
 14,3 Nm+22 %
Cogging Torque
CG
8,1 Nm
pp
11,6 Nm
pp
3,5 Nm+43 %
 Induced Voltage
 PH 
210 V
peak 
250 V
peak 
 40 V+19 %
 
Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines3
0501001502002500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90load angle [°el]
   T   [   N  m   ]
with solid bridgewithout solid bridge
 Fig. 4. Torque vs. load angle of both designs.
 E.
 
Summary
It is shown that the utilization of the electrical machine is better using a V-magnet shape with a solid bridge between themagnets. The main reasons for the higher utilization are thesmaller and consequently higher saturated paths for leakageflux when still achieving the mechanical robustness of the rotor at overload speed. Nevertheless, the rotor design does not meetthe requirements as the results show that torque ripple andcogging torque increase with the better torque performance. Itis also to be mentioned that a solid bridge between the PMsresults in a higher cross-coupling effect [2].III.
 
E
LECTROMAGNETIC DESIGN PROCESS FOR THE ROTOR 
 
 A.
 
 Introduction
To simplify the design process for rotors with magnet polesin V-shape, an electromagnetic investigation is carried out. Adesign procedure (see Fig. 5) is proposed wherein at first themachine is designed as a reluctance machine. In other wordsthe V-shape is investigated without the influence of the PMflux. After optimizing the reluctance torque in terms of torqueripple and mean value of the produced torque, the magnets areadded to the FEM model and the whole torque performance isinvestigated. It is expected that the design process is lesscomplex by this method instead of optimizing both torquecomponents at the same time. If the design process still doesnot reveal the expected results, a further step could be added tothe process. This optional step is the investigation of the PMtorque component without the influence of reluctance torque.
 B.
 
 Investigation of reluctance torque
As an example, a machine design with 20 poles and 24 slotsis chosen. For this pole and slot combination very low coggingtorque and torque ripple caused by the PM flux is expected [5].The parameters wmag and
α
are designated as degrees of freedom for the investigation of reluctance torque. The size of the PM slots is kept constant. The two parameters will beadjusted with the aim to maximize the reluctance torque whileobtaining a small torque ripple. At first a known configurationis chosen and the torque versus rotor position is calculated.
Fig. 5. Proposed electromagnetic design process.
The parameters were adjusted to obtain a high SaliencyRatio with the rotor design and consequently a high reluctancetorque. In this example the iterative optimization was stoppedat the seventh step (see Fig 6). From step 1 to step 7 thereluctance torque was increased by 34% while the TorqueRipple Factor was decreased by 8%. For better evaluation of torque ripple T
RP
, the Torque Ripple Factor is used in thiscontext.(1)The resulting rotor design parameters after all 7 iterationsare shown in Tab. 3. This rotor design is used for the further steps of the design process.
Fig. 6. Iterative optimization of reluctance torque.TABLE III
G
EOMETRIC DATA OF ROTOR MODEL
(
STEP
7)
Symbol Value Symbol Value
 Rad1
114 mm
 p
10
 Rad3
145 mm
 Z 
24
Gap
1 mm
wmag 
13.2 mm
 LM 
4 mm
 L
 fe
 
70 mm
a_0
0,5 mm
α  
 
16°
Proposedgeometryforrotor laminationwithV-magnetshapeOptimizationof reluctancetorque performanceoptional: optimizationof PM-torqueperformanceOptimizationof full-torque performanceRotor geometrywithV-magnetshape
%100
=
TRF 
 RP 
0,020,040,060,080,0100,0120,01 2 3 4 5 6 7Design Step
   T   [   N  m   ]
051015202530
   T
   R   P
   [   N  m
  p  p
   ]  ;   T   R   F   [   %   ]
TorqueTorque RippleTorque Ripple Factor 

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