3. Searching Relevant Literature And Researches
"The review of the literature provides the background and context for the research problem. It should establish the need for the research and indicate that the writer isknowledgeable about the area" (Wiersma, 1995, p. 406).Review of the writing of recognized authorities in the area and research studies previously carried out would make the researcher familiar with what is already knownand what still remains to be done. Systematic review of related literature is expected toyield among other things, insight and information needed. The review of related literatureis expected to assist the researcher in several ways in finalization of undertaken study.Searching should contain only those studies or literature which is related to the problemeither as a whole or to some aspect (s) of the problem. The review of researches should be as concise as possible. It should include the surname of the author followed by theyear of publication in parenthesis, the objectives of the study, the hypothesis (es) if thereis any, the sample, its size, characteristics, sampling technique, and the tools used alongwith their reliability and validity coefficients, etc. If the study is of experimental type, thedetails regarding the design, treatment, duration, etc. must be included in the review. Thestatistical techniques used or analyzing the data, and the findings of the study should also be presented in a way that they lead the reader rather than the reader exerting to find outwhat he is reading about. One paragraph should lead to another. With each additional paragraph the reader should feel that he is clearer over the discussion than he was before.The review of literature must have continuity in thoughts.
4. Statement of the Problem
Once the background for undertaking the study has been put forth, the researcher shouldwrite the statement of the problem generally in bold letters. Statement of the problemshould come without any unnecessary introduction. It presents an overview of the problem that researcher has in his/her mind.An appropriate topic/ title is the first source for a reader to know about the nature andcontents of a research study. It is therefore expected that the topic/title will have completecorrespondence with the contents of the study. Topic of a research study should haveadequacy, relevancy and simplicity. Normally a research topic should satisfy the following criteria: (i) state the key variablesincluded in the study, (ii) state relationship between variables, (iii) state population towhich results would be applicable, (iv) avoid redundant words, and (v) use onlyacceptable scientific terms. Besides, a topic should neither be too long to be over explicitnor too short to be over implicit. It should be concise and to the point.
4.1. Operational Definitions
There are certain terms which may be interpreted in different ways. In such a caseit is better to give an operational definition to avoid vagueness andmisinterpretation. The operational definition as far as possible should be in thewords of the researcher and it should be direct and simple worded. For examplethe key words such as intelligence, achievement, creativity, problematic child,gifted child, infrastructure, adjustment, etc need to be spelt out. For exampleoperational definition of adjustment may be as below: In the present studyadjustment of the students of Std. X means their adjustment measured by theadjustment inventory made by R.P.Singh related to five aspects i.e home, school,social, health & emotion.
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