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Chemistry Notes (Electrolysis)

Chemistry Notes (Electrolysis)

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Chemistry notes on Electrolysis
Chemistry notes on Electrolysis

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Published by: Teo Jia Ming Nickolas on Oct 18, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/30/2013

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Nickolas Teo
Electrolysis
y
 
Wh
at
o
 
I
t is t
h
e conduction of electricity by an electrolyte, an aqueous or molten ioniccompound, leading to t
h
e decomposition of t
h
e electrolyte
y
 
E
lectrolysis of compounds
o
 
M
olten
 
Ev
idence for t
h
e fact t
h
at ions are
h
eld in fixed position, in a lattice, w
h
en solid.But mobile w
h
en molten or aqueous, as electricity is conducted
 
C
ations are attracted to t
h
e cat
h
ode (negati
v
e terminal) and get disc
h
arged, ast
h
ey recei
v
e electrons
 
A
nions are attracted to t
h
e anode (positi
v
e terminal) and get disc
h
arged, ast
h
ey lose electrons
 
I
n electrolysis of a binary compound , ionic t
h
at only contain two elements, t
h
etwo ions present are disc
h
arged, forming a metal and non-metal
o
 
A
queous
 
C
ontains two electrolytes, t
h
e aqueous ionic compound and water
 
A
metal or
h
ydrogen is disc
h
arged at t
h
e cat
h
ode
 
A
non-metal is disc
h
arged at t
h
e anode
y
 
S
electi
v
e disc
h
arge (w
h
en using inert electrodes)
o
 
C
ations
 
T
h
e least reacti
v
e metal ion gets preferentially disc
h
arged, as it gains electronsmore readily
o
 
A
nions
 
E
asiest to
h
ardest: Hydroxide,
h
alides, nitrates and sulp
h
ates.
o
 
C
oncentration effect
 
Wh
en a
h
alide solution is concentrated, t
h
e
h
alides get preferentially disc
h
argedcompared to
h
ydroxide
y
 
P
urification
o
 
P
urification of copper.
 
S
et-up
 
P
ure copper cat
h
ode, impure copper anode
 
C
opper(
II
) sulp
h
ate electrolyte
 
O
bser
v
ations
 
C
at
h
ode increases in size, anode decreases
o
 
C
opper forms at cat
h
ode, becomes ion at anode
 
No colour c
h
ange
o
 
No net c
h
ange in concentration of copper(
II
) ions
 
I
mpurities are deposited below t
h
e anode
y
 
E
lectroplating
o
 
I
t is t
h
e depositing a layer of metal on anot
h
er substance using electrolysis

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