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IRMA GK 2010

IRMA GK 2010

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Published by: Mbatutes on Oct 18, 2010
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12/26/2012

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ISSUES IN DEMOGRAPHY : rural and urban population, sex ratio, etc.
 
Related Information: India Demographics
Scientific study of human population, their size, their structure, their development is regardedas Demography. According to Van Mayer, sociologist, Demography can be defined as 'thenumerical analysis of the state and movement of human population inclusive of censusenumeration and registration of vital processes and of whatever quantitative statistical analysiscan be made of the state and movement of population on the fundamental census andregistration data'.
Census
Census is the process of collecting, compiling, evaluating analyzing and publishingdemographic, social and economic data pertaining to specific point of time to all persons in acountry. This process was first of all started by British in 1871, since then it is conducted every10 years. The last census in India was conducted in 2001. A broad questionnaire is prepared for it which generally consists of mainly three parts; The House List, The Household Schedule andThe Individual Slip 
Population
India, land of unity in diversity, is situated roughly between 8 n and 37n latitude. This vast landoccupying 2.4% of total area of world, is the second largest nation in terms of population size.India has population of 1.1 billion, which is 16% of total world population. With current rate of population growth(2.11% appx) India will soon replace China as a most populous nation of theworld. According to the Census conducted in 2001, India had total population of 1,028,610,328out of which population of males was 532,156,772 as against 496,453,556 number of femaleswith overall sex ratio of 933 i.e. 933 females per 1000 males. 
Population Growth Trend In India, 1901-1991CENSUS YEARPOPULATION (inmillions)ABSOLUTECHANGE (inmillions)AVERAGE ANNUALEXPONENTIALGROWTH RATE
1891236.7 1901238.41.69 1911252.0914.70.561921251.32-6.77-0.031931278.9827.661.041941318.6636.681.331951361.0942.431.25http://www.mbatutes.com
 
 
1961439.2378.141.961971548.16108.932.21981683.33135.172.221991843.93160.62.11
 
Rural and Urban Population
It is said that India lies in villages. Around 70% population of India lives in villages and isemployed in primary sector. But in recent times this ratio of Rural/Urban population is changingfast. There are many factors most important of them is Migration. Due to unemployment andlack of facilities in rural set up people are immigrating into the cities in search of work and better living conditions. This migration has put a lot of strain on basic infrastructure of cities. Theincreasing population pressure on cities has resulted in coming up of slums. According to 2001Census Delhi alone has slum population of 1,851,231, which is 18.7% of total population of Delhi. 
Religion
India is a secular democracy almost all the religions of world find representation in this country.If on one hand majority of its population(appx 80%) is Hindu on the other it also boasts of havingthe third largest Muslim population in the world. As per the last census conducted, out of thetotal population of 1028,610,328; 8275879 are Hindus, 138188 (13%) Muslims, 24080 (2.34%)Christians, 19216 (1.8%) Sikhs,7955 (.7%) Buddhist, 4225(.4%) Jains and 6640 (.6%) Others. 
Literacy Rate
Literacy can be defined as the ability to read and write with understanding in any one language.The percentage of literate people out of the total population of the country is known as theliteracy rate of that nation. In India literacy rate is 65.38% as per 2001 census. But this rate isnot uniform and may vary according to region, religion and gender. Urban literacy rate is muchmore than rural, male literacy rate is higher than the female literacy rate. The following tableillustrates the point: 
PROGRESS OF LITERACY IN INDIA, 1901 TO 2001Percent Literate In PopulationCENSUS YEARTOTALMALEFEMALE
19015.539.830.6919115.9210.561.0519217.1612.211.8119319.515.592.93195118.3327.168.86http://www.mbatutes.com
 
 
196128.340.415.35197134.4545.9621.98198142.5756.3829.76199152.2164.1339.29200165.3875.8554.16
 
Language
India is home to approximately 1652 languages among them 350 are major ones. There are22 officially recognized languages, it include Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi,Kannad, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Santhali,Sanskrit, Sindhi, Telugu, Tamil, Nepali and Urdu. Hindi is the most widely spoken languageclosely followed by English, which is the second official language of the nation.
Gender Empowerment Measure
The
Gender Empowerment Measure
(GEM) is a measure of inequalities between men's andwomen's opportunities in a country. It combines inequalities in three areas: political participationand decision making, economic participation and decision making, and power over economicresources. It is one of the five indicators used by the United Nations Development Programmein its annual Human Development Report. According to the Gender Empowerment Measure(GEM) 2007-08, Sweden has been provided the 1st rank. For UNDP’s Human Development Report 2009, visit the following page:http://hdr stats.undp.org/en/indicators/125.html http://hdr.undp.or g/en/statistics/indices/gdi_gem/  
Issues arising from the social and economic exclusion of the large sections from thebenefits of development such as poverty and inequality; poverty level; poverty line;disparities in income, employment and literacy by rural-urban background, and gender and social groups like caste and religion.
 
WOMEN & CHILD WELFARE
The department of Women & Child Development has been set up to assist the women inimproving their socio-economic status by associating them with different developmentalactivities, particularly rural women. The primary aim of this department is to provide necessaryinfrastructure for comprehensive development of women’s potential and thus help them to playa significant role in the development process as participants and beneficiaries.The policy for women aims at making them economically independent and self-reliant. Focus ison the following areas, as per the policy.1. Steps to eliminate violence against women;http://www.mbatutes.com

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