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Gravitomagnetic Field of a rotating superconductor - ESA

Gravitomagnetic Field of a rotating superconductor - ESA

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Published by: Nullpunktsenergie on Oct 18, 2010
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11/29/2012

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Gravitomagnetic Field of a Rotating Superconductor and of a Rotating Superfluid
M. Tajmar 
*
 
 ARC Seibersdorf research GmbH, A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria
C. J. de Matos
 
 ESA-ESTEC, Directorate of Scientific Programmes, PO Box 299, NL-2200 AG Noordwijk,The Netherlands
Abstract
The quantization of the extended canonical momentum in quantum materials includingthe effects of gravitational drag is applied successively to the case of a multiply connectedrotating superconductor and superfluid. Experiments carried out on rotating superconductors, based on the quantization of the magnetic flux in rotating superconductors, lead to adisagreement with the theoretical predictions derived from the quantization of a canonicalmomentum without any gravitomagnetic term. To what extent can these discrepancies beattributed to the additional gravitomagnetic term of the extended canonical momentum? Thisis an open and important question. For the case of multiply connected rotating neutralsuperfluids, gravitational drag effects derived from rotating superconductor data appear to behidden in the noise of present experiments according to a first rough analysis.PACS: 04.80.Cc, 04.25.Nx, 74.90.+nKeywords: Gravitational Drag, Gravitomagnetism, London moment
*
Research Scientist, Space Propulsion, Phone: +43-50550-3142, Fax: +43-50550-3366, E-mail:martin.tajmar@arcs.ac.at
 
Scientific Advisor, Phone: +31-71-565-3460, Fax: +31-71-565-4101, E-mail: clovis.de.matos@esa.int
 
Introduction
Applying an angular velocity
ω 
v
to any substance aligns its elementary gyrostats andthus causes a magnetic field known as the
 Barnett effect 
[1]. In this case, the angular velocity
ω 
v
is proportional to a magnetic field
equal 
 B
v
which would cause the same alignment:
ω 
vv
=
em g  B
equal 
21.(1)where
 g 
is the Landé factor,
m
and
e
are the mass and the charge of the electron respectively.As recently shown by the authors [2], a gravitational analogue exists using the weak-fieldapproximation of general relativity, in which the field equations can be written in a formsimilar to Maxwell's equations with a gravitoelectric field
 g 
v
[m.s
-2
] analogue to the electricfield
 E 
v
[V.m
-1
] and a gravitomagnetic field
 g 
 B
v
[rad.s
-1
] analogue to the magnetic field
 B
v
[T][3, 4]. In this so called
 gravitomagnetic Barnett effect 
, the applied angular velocity is alsoequivalent to a gravitomagnetic field
equal  g 
 B
,
v
which results in a gravitomagnetization of thesubstance:
ω 
vv
=
 g  B
equal  g 
2
,
.(2)However, since the gravitomagnetic permeability
272
1031.9/4
==
 xcG
 g 
π µ 
m.kg
-1
is sosmall, the resulting gravitomagnetic field outside the substance is too weak to be detected.This low permeability leads to extremely small order of magnitude effects for laboratory typeexperiments on general relativity [5].We propose in this paper, that a different coupling between electromagnetism and gravito-electromagnetism might exist in quantum materials such as superconductors or superfluids.
 
 Rotating Superconductors
Let us first consider a superconductor in the form of a cylindrical shell. According toLondon [6], the local mean value of the canonical momentum vector of the superelectrons
 s
 p
v
,integrated around a closed path, is quantized:
( )
2
nh Aevm p
 s s
=+=
∫ ∫ 
vvvvv
,(3) where
m
and
 s
v
v
are respectively the mass and the velocity of the Cooper-pairs,
 A
v
is themagnetic vector potential,
n
is an integer and
h
is the Planck's constant. London argued [6],that this quantization condition must vanish for a closed loop inside the superconductor giving
n=0
. Taking the curl of Equ. (3) and London's argument, we see that a rotatingsuperconductor with an angular velocity
ω 
v
will produce a magnetic field
 B
v
given by
ω 
vv
=
em B
2.(4) This is also called the London moment, arising from Coriolis forces on a charged particle in a rotating reference frame. More generally, this expression can be derived withinthe framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory, integrating the current density equationaround a closed path including the effect of the rotating reference frame [7]. We then obtain
ΓΓ
=
∫ ∫ 
Γ
em Benh jnem
 s
vvvvvv
ω 
22
2
,(5)

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