E. Podkletnov, R. Nieminen /Gravity shielding by bulk YBCO
Two coils with rotating magnetic fields, similar tothose used in regular electric motors, were placed onboth sides of the disk, as shown in fig. 1. The disklevitated above the toroidal magnet and was able torotate around its central axis at a variable speed. Thefrequency of the electromagnetic field in all three so-lenoids was varied from 50 to 1O6 Hz. A sample madeof silicon dioxide hanging on a thread was placed overthe disk at a distance of about 15 mm from it, andwas separated from the He vapours by a thin trans-parent plastic foil. The weight of the sample wasmeasured with high precision using an electro-opti-cal comparing balance.The phase and crystal structure of the supercon-ductor were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD) and under a scanning electron microscope(SEM). The electrical resistivity of the supercon-ductor was measured by the four-probe method us-ing an AC current and gold contacts.3.
As determined by XRD-analysis, the sintered diskwas pure single-phase orthorhombic 123-compound
plastic film2 magnets with/ rotating fieldsupportingtoroidalmagnet-liquid
HeFig. 1. Schematic diagram of the installation for the measure-ments of shielding properties of the YBa,Cu@_,bulk ceramics.
with random orientation and lattice parameters:~~0.381 nm,
nm, ~~1.165 nm. SEM in-vestigations showed that the material was extremelydense with no open porosity and consisted of smallgrains with pure grain boundaries free from phasesegregation.The transition temperature
measured from theresistive transition was 92 IS with a width of 0.7 K.The superconducting ceramic disk revealed a weakbut clearly detectable shielding effect against thegravitational force at the temperatures from 20 to 70K. The sample with the initial weight of 5.47834 gwas found to loose about 0.05% of its weight whenplaced over the levitating disk without any rotation.When the rotation speed of the disk increased, theweight of the sample became unstable and gave fluc-tuations from - 2.5 to + 5.4% of the initial value.At certain speeds of rotation and at certain fre-quencies of electromagnetic field in the rotationmagnets the weight of the sample stabilized and de-creased by 0.3%. The readings in the stable regionswere recorded several timeswith goodreproducibility.The levitating superconducting disk was found torise by up to 7 mm when its rotation moment in-creased. Test measurements without the supercon-ducting shielding disk, but with all operating sole-noids connected to the power supply, had no effecton the weight of the sample.Every precaution was taken to prevent the influ-ence of static electricity and air flow on the sampleor the supporting thread. Also, the electro-opticalbalance was shielded from the possible influence ofelectromagnetic fields.4.
There exist several types of levitation which canbe explained by different physical phenomena. Freeflotation of the objects can be caused by aerodyn-amic, acoustic, and optical forces, and can also begenerated by electrostatic or magnetic fields or byradio-frequency radiation, as analyzed in detail inref. ,In the present work, a typical superconducting lev-itation due to the Meissner effect is used to lift a su-perconducting disk by an alternating electromag-