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mark- mr

mark- mr

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Published by kramX

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: kramX on Oct 18, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Comparing the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Two methods of Teaching Methods of TeachingGeometric Shape Concepts to Students with Mental RetardationINTRODUCTIONConcepts are essential to human reasoning including categorization, deductiveinference, learning, memory explanation, problem solving, generalization, analogical inference,language comprehension, and language production (Thargard, 1992). Most students learn manyconcepts through various activities that involve observation and experience (Markle, 1975). Sincestudents with mental retardation have limited hands-on experience and impaired intellectualfunctioning memory and generalization problems (Conway & Gow, 1990; Strokes & Baer, 1977) theyfail to learn concepts through observation and daily experiences. In order to overcome this difficulty,concept teaching should be designed in a way that helps students generalize.Review of related literature showed that different instructional design variablesaffect the acquisition of concepts, the way the presentation of the concept, the order of the presentationof the examples and non examples, the number of examples and the features of examples. The procedure for teaching the concept also matters. These procedures can be summarized as analyzing theconcept being taught, formulating a definition of the concept, generating a list of examples and nonexamples, defining instructional objectives, deciding the type of presentation of the concept, selectingthe appropriate number of examples and nonexamples, providing corrective and confirming feedback,and asssessing with a new set of examples and nonexamples.The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of twoteaching models, the expository presentation of Merrill and Tennyson's model and Gagne's model inacquisition and maintenance of square and triangle concepts in students with mental retardation.The Merrill and Tennyson model consists of a definition, an expository presentation of 'matched' examples and non examples that are arranged from easy to difficult and are
divergent, and an interrogatory practice presentation of newly encountered and randomly orderedexamples and non examples. During the expository presentation, the teacher explains whether eachinstance is an example or non example of the concept and then points out the presence or absence of the critical attributes. During the interrogatory practice, students asked to distinguish examples fromnon examples and give reasons for their answers. According th Gagne, Briggs, and Wagner (1988), aconcept can be learned from a verbally stated definition provided the component concepts, that is, thedefining and critical attributes, can be recalled and understood. The Gagne model consists of presentingexamples and non examples and a statement that each is or is not the concept. No explanation is givenabout critical attributes during the presentation.Several studies claim that the Merrills and Tennyson's model is more effective.On the other hand, the effectiveness of the Gagne model in teaching mathematics and pre- academicconcepts of mental retardation was also supported by various studies.The four participants of the study were chosen from students with mentalretardation who attended a private special education center. The participant met the following criteria:a.) being able to match geometric shape, b.) ranging in age from 7 to 9, c.) being able to speak three-or-four-word sentences, and d.) not being able to discriminate between square and triangle. All four  participants full- scale score of the WISC- R was 55. Experimental procedures were conductedindividually in a private room located in the center, For the purpose of assessing inter- observer agreement and treatment integrity, a video- camera was used to record all the sessions. Experimental procedures were applied three days a week. The experimental process was completed in one month,with two sessions conducted per day. All participating students were assessed during baseline, aninstruction and a maintenance phase. In the baseline condition, a criterion reference test wasadministered at least three times to each student individually to assess his/her levels on the square andtriangle concepts. In the intervention phase, square and triangle concepts were taught to each studentindividually by administrating the two concept teaching models alternatingly once in every two
sessions. A criterion reference test was individually administered at the end of each session. Themaintenance measure was taken two weeks after the conclusion of the intervention for each participant.The results showed that student achievement for the Gane model was greater than the achievement reported for the Merrill and Tennyson model in improving concept acquisitionand maintenance of the first and third students. Evidence also indicated that the two models did notdiffer significantly from each other with the second and fourth students. Indeed, evidence supportedthat both models facilitated concept acquisition and maintenance. The results also showed that theGagne model required less teaching time with three out of four participants compared to the teachingtime used for the Merrill and Tennyson model. In conclusion, evidence from this study supported theuse of the Gagne model in teaching pre- academic concepts to students with mental retardation.EVALUATIONThe research is really essential to all special educational institution ,it has a bigcontribution as to what techniques school should use to teach mental retarded people. Like the normal people, mental retarded people should also receive equal treatment. They also have the right to learn,for an education,and so there should have a proper way of teaching them. The method of the research isgreat, but only two strategy are tested and compared. I guess there are lots of strategy that should bealso included in the research. It was shown that the Gagne model is more effective that the other model,but it doesn't imply that the Merrill and Tennyson's model has no use. The population or thenumber of the participants doesn't represents the whole population thus the study may not yield strongreliability. The study could have different results if more students will be use and are came fromdifferent culture or place, and age group. And also the study should also determine the long term effectsof the two instructional models.

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