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mark- ADHD

mark- ADHD

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Published by kramX

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: kramX on Oct 18, 2010
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12/23/2012

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Is ADHD a real Disorder?INTRODUCTIONThis article is about the issue whether ADHD is a valid disorder or not. There aresome arguments that ADHD is a fraud, and it doesn't exist, thus considered to be an invalid disorder.But there are also lots of experiments and researches that supports the other side, so it washypothesized that ADHD is truly considered to be a disorder. The problem stated in the article is tosee both sides regarding the issue, whether ADHD is a valid disorder or not. The researchersmethod was simply gather datums and research findings supporting each sides, and compare andanalyzed has been done as to what side is correct or best supported.Two articles has been analyzed, the first entitled
 An epidemic of ADD or a matter of Overdiagnosis?
Supporting the side that ADHD is not a valid disorder 
 ,
the second article supportingthe side that ADHD is considered disorder entitled
 ADHD International Consensus.
And further exploration of the issue has been done as to arrive in a conclusion whether ADHD is a validdisorder or not.The first article states that Attention Deficits Disorders (ADD), now known asADHD, is a form of diagnosis being used to categorize children in a narrowly defined form of  behavior. And in additional, every child has their own learning method and stress- reacting style.This article affirms that ADD is not a real disorder. Several arguments has been presented from thisarticle to support the researcher claim. First is neurological, according to one study, most mental professionals often attribute ADD to an imbalance of neurotransmitters within the brain but there isno ultimate means for the found differences making the link questionable. The other one is the studyon the overstimulated society, it is stated that environment shapes children to act fast and active, andnot because of ADD. The next supporting argument is the study on dietary problem, sugar intakes indiet contributes in altering the children's behaviors, causing them to experience anxiety, shakiness,
 
excitement and problems concentrating for several hours. And also, the classroom control, childrenwho are simply misbehaving in class are often categorized as ADD by teachers to maintain controland create a relaxed learning environment. And lastly the study on giftedness, gifted children mayalso be included in the diagnostic criteria of ADD as they show some ADD-like symptoms in somesettings. These children, who are merely filled with boredom, mismatch learning style or other environmental factors, are perceived as having the inability to stay on a given task.The second article officially agrees that ADHD is in fact a valid disorder. The articleis a consensus that serves as a reference of the status of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), its validity and its impact which was signed by 75 international scientists. The scientistwere worried about the inaccurate perception of the disorder being a myth or fraud and not being avalid disorder. According to them, this has caused many sufferers not to seek treatment. The ADHDInternational Consensus Statement contains three main evidences that support the existence of ADHD which are neurological, genetic and harm posed to individuals. ADHD is a disorder becauseit has harm posed to individual, it could be mortality and impairment. Impairment in life activitiessuch as impairment in social relations, education, family functioning, occupational functioning,self-sufficiency, adherence to social rules and prone to physical injury and accidental poisoning. Ina neurological study, ADHD is associated to
 
specific regions of the brain, especially the frontal lobe, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Individuals with ADHD are shown to have less brain electricalactivity, less metabolic activity and also less reactivity to stimulation. Neuro-imaging studies haveshown that individuals with ADHD have a smaller area of brain matter. And lastly, ADHD is foundto be the highest genetically contributed psychiatric disorder (70-95% of trait variation) where onegene has been confirmed to be associated with the disorder. The disorder is not solely resulting fromenvironmental factors. Family environment is said to make no significant separate contribution tothe traits. ADHD can comorbid with other problems such as higher drop out rates, have few or nofriends, underperform at work, antisocial activities, extreme use of tobacco, teenage pregnancy,sexually transmitted disease (STD), speed excessively, car accidents, depression and personality
 
disorder. Despite the impacts and agreement that ADHD is a valid disorder, less than half of peoplereceive treatment.After the contradictory points have been analyzed, further exploration of the issuehad done. Studies on consensus, brain structures and activities, heredity, family factors, schoolenvironment, overstimulated society, cultural implications, ADHD symptoms, and the contributionsof the practitioners has been explored, and broadly analyzed to gauge which side is more supported by studies and correct.There are ample study of established bodies believing that ADHD is a valid disorder.Organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA), the American PsychiatricAssociation, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), the AmericanPsychological Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. SurgeonGeneral (ADHD- Report, 2002). Also, through latest technologies, neuroimaging methods such asfunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), it is found that ADHD children are shown tohave 3 to 4 percent of smaller brain volumes in regions of the frontal lobe, temporal grey matter,caudate nucleus, and cerebellum (NIMH, 2008). Research has shown that ADHD indeed runs infamilies and that it is genetically link (MedicineNet.com, 2007). Between 10 to 35 percent of first-degree family members or close relatives are likely to have ADHD (Nelson & Israel, 2006). At leastone third of fathers with ADHD have a high tendency of having one or more offspring with ADHD(MedicineNet.com, 2007). Family incidences such as family social economical status, conflict andseparation, and level of mental health and coping have been noted as a prominent issue in its link with ADHD (Goodman & Stevenson, 1989; Mc Gee et. al., 2002, as cited in Nelson & Israel,2006). Parent-child relationship is important as a research has shown that mothers with a history of depression and fathers with a background of ADHD when young is connected to the child havingADHD (Nigg & Hinshaw, 1998 as cited in Nelson & Israel, 2006). The organization of theclassroom and how its activities are being carried out can strongly impact the academic

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