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Environmental Sociology

Environmental Sociology

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Published by yuvaraj subramani

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: yuvaraj subramani on Oct 19, 2010
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Environmental sociologyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sociology
 
 
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Cat
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vde 
 
E
nvironm
e
ntal sociology
is typically defined as thesociologicalstudy of societal-environmental interactions, although this definition immediately presents the perhapsinsolvable problem of separating human cultures from the rest of theenvironment. Althoughthe focus of the field is the relationship between society and environment in general,environmentalsociologiststypically place special emphasis on studying the social factors thatcause environmental problems, the societal impacts of those problems, and efforts to solvethe problems. In addition, considerable attention is paid to the social processes by whichcertain environmental conditions become socially defined as problems.Although there was sometimes acrimonious debate betweentheconstructivistandrealist"camps" within environmental sociology in the 1990s, the two sides have found considerable common ground as both increasingly accept that while mostenvironmental problems have a material reality they nonetheless become known only viahuman processes such as scientific knowledge, activists' efforts, and media attention. In other words, most environmental problems have a realontologicalstatus despite our knowledge/awareness of them stemming from social processes, processes by which variousconditions are constructed as problems by scientists, activists, media and other social actors.Correspondingly, environmental problems must all be understood via social processes,despite any material basis they may have external to humans. This interactiveness is now broadly accepted, but many aspects of the debate continue in contemporary research in thefield.
 
Cont
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[hide]1 History 
o
 
1.1 Academic 
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Concepts 
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2
.1 Existential dualism 
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Five
P
aradigms and Research Methods in Environmental Sociology 
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.1 Neo-Malthusianism 
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New Ecological
P
aradigm 
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Eco-Marxism 
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.4 Ecological Modernization / Reflexive Modernization 
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.5 Social Construction of the Environment 4 Events 
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4.1 Modern environmentalism 
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Historical studies 
 
 
5 See also 
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References 
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External links [edit]HistoryModern thought surrounding human-environment relations is traced back toCharles Darwin.Darwin¶s concept of natural selectionsuggested that certain social characteristics played akey role in the survivability of groups in the natural environment. Although typically taken atthe micro level, evolutionary principles, particularly adaptability, serve as a microcosmof human ecology. Work by Humphrey and Buttel (
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traces the linkages betweenDarwin's work on natural selection, human ecological sociology, and environmentalsociology.[edit]
A
cad
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mic
It became recognized in the latter half of the
2
0th century that biological determinismfailedto fully explain the relationship between humans and the environment. As the applicationof social determinismbecame more useful, the role of sociologybecame more pervasive in analyzing environmental conditions. At first, classical sociology saw social and culturalfactors as the only cause of other social and cultural conditions. This lens ignored the conceptof environmental determinismor the environmental factors that cause social phenomena.The works of William R. Catton, Jr.andRiley Dunlapchallenged the constrictedanthropocentrismof classical sociology. In the late 19
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0s, they called for a newholistic, or systems perspective. Since the 19
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0s, sociology has noticeably transformed toinclude environmental forces in social explanations. Environmental sociology emerged as acoherent subfield of inquiry after theenvironmental movementof the 19
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0s and early 19
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0s.It has now solidified as a respected, interdisciplinary subject inacademia.[edit]Concepts[edit]
Ex
ist
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ntial dualism
The duality of the human condition rests with cultural uniqueness and evolutionary traits.From one perspective, humans are embedded in theecosphereand coevolved alongside other species. Humans share the same basic ecological dependencies as other inhabitants of nature.From the other perspective, humans are distinguished from other species because of their innovative capacities, distinct cultures and varied institutions. Human creations have the power to independently manipulate, destroy, and transcend the limits of the naturalenvironment (Buttel and Humphrey,
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