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Nav Aids

Nav Aids

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Published by Atiq Baloch

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Published by: Atiq Baloch on Oct 19, 2010
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10/22/2012

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 ASSIGNMENT #3AV-491
MLS
The
Microwave Landing System
(MLS) is an all-weather, precision landingsystem originally intended to replace or supplement theInstrument LandingSystem(ILS). MLS has a number of operational advantages, including a wideselection of channels to avoid interference with other nearby airports, excellentperformance in all weather, and a small "footprint" at the airports.MLS employs 5GHz transmitters at the landing place which usepassiveelectronically scanned arraysto send scanning beams towards approachingaircraft. An aircraft that enters the scanned volume uses a special receiver thatcalculates its position by measuring the arrival times of the beams.The US version of MLS was a joint development between theFAA,NASA, and theU.S. Department of Defense, was designed to provide precision navigationguidance for exact alignment and descent of aircraft on approach to a runway. Itprovides azimuth, elevation, and distance, as well as "back azimuth", for navigating from an aborted landing or missed approach. MLS channels were alsoused for short-range communications with airport controllers, allowing long-distance frequencies to be handed over to other aircraft.
OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS 
The system may be divided into five functions: Approach azimuth, Back azimuth,Approach elevation, Range and Data communications.
APPROACH AZIMUTH GUIDANCE
The azimuth station transmits MLS angle and data on one of 200 channels withinthe frequency range of 5031 to 5091 MHz and is normally located about 1,000feet (300 m) beyond the stop end of the runway, but there is considerableflexibility in selecting sites. For example, for heliport operations the azimuthtransmitter can be collocated with the elevation transmitter.
ELEVATION GUIDANCE
The elevation station transmits signals on the same frequency as the azimuthstation. A single frequency is time-shared between angle and data functions andis normally located about 400 feet from the side of the runway between runwaythreshold and the touchdown zone.
 
RANGE GUIDANCE
The MLS PrecisionDistance Measuring Equipment(DME/P) functions the sameas the navigation DME, but there are some technical differences. The beacontransponder operates in the frequency band 962 to 1105 MHz and responds toan aircraft interrogator. The MLS DME/P accuracy is improved to be consistentwith the accuracy provided by the MLS azimuth and elevation stations.
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
The data transmission can include both the basic and auxiliary data words. AllMLS facilities transmit basic data. Where needed, auxiliary data can betransmitted. MLS data are transmitted throughout the azimuth (and back azimuthwhen provided) coverage sectors. Representative data include: Stationidentification, Exact locations of azimuth, elevation and DME/P stations (for MLSreceiver processing functions), Ground equipment performance level; andDME/P channel and status.
 
LORAN
INTRO
LORAN
(
LO
ng
RA
nge
N
avigation) is a terrestrialradio navigationsystem usinglow frequency radio transmittersthat uses multiple transmitters (multilateration) to determinelocationand/or speed of the receiver. The current version of LORAN in common use is LORAN-C, which operates in the low frequencyportion of the EM spectrum from 90 to 110kHz. Many nations are users of thesystem, including theUnited States,Japan, and several European countries. Russia uses a nearly identical system in the same frequency range, calledCHAYKA. LORAN use is in steep decline, withGPSbeing the primary replacement. However, there are current attempts to enhance and re-popularizeLORAN, mainly to serve as a backup to GPS and other GNSSsystems.
Principle
Thenavigational methodprovided by LORAN is based on the principle of thetime difference between the receipt of signalsfrom a pair of radiotransmitters.
[3] 
A given constant time difference between the signals from the two stations canbe represented by ahyperbolic line of position(LOP). If the positions of the two synchronized stations are known, then the position of thereceiver can bedetermined as being somewhere on a particular hyperbolic curve where the timedifference between the received signals is constant. In ideal conditions, this isproportionally equivalent to the difference of thedistancesfrom the receiver toeach of the two stations.By itself, with only two stations, the2-dimensionalposition of the receiver cannotbefixed. A second application of the same principle must be used, based on thetime difference of a different pair of stations. In practice, one of the stations in thesecond pair may also be—and frequently is—in the first pair. By determining theintersection of the two hyperboliccurvesidentified by the application of thismethod, a geographic fix can be determined.

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