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P. 1
Electronic Instrument Handbook Third Edition

Electronic Instrument Handbook Third Edition

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Published by hashemowida
1- Introduction to Electronic Instruments and Measurements1
2- Calibration, Traceability and Standards
3-, Basic Electronic Standards
4- Data-Acquisition Systems
5- Transducers
6- Analog-to-Digital Converters
7- Signal Sources
8- Microwave Signal Sources
9- Digital Signal Processing
10- Embedded Computers in Electronic Instruments
11- Power Supplies
12- Instrument Hardware User Interfaces
Voltage, Current, and Resistance Measuring Instruments 13-
14- Oscilloscopes
15- Power Measurements
16- Oscillators, Function Generators, Frequency and Waveform Synthesizers
17- Pulse Generators
18- Microwave Signal Generators
19- Electronic Counters and Frequency and Time Interval Analyzers
20- Precision Time and Frequency Sources
21- Spectrum Analyzers
22- Lightwave Signal Sources
23- Lightwave Signal Analysis
24- Lightwave Component Analyzers
25- Optical Time Domain Reflectometers
26- Impedance Measurement Instruments
27- Semiconductor Test Instrumentation
28- Network Analyzers
29- Logic Analyzers
30- Protocol Analyzers
31- Bit Error Rate Measuring Instruments:
Pattern Generators and Error Detectors
32- Microwave Passive Devices
33- Impedance Considerations
34- Electrical Interference
35- Electrical Grounding
36- Distributed Parameters and Component Considerations
37- Digital Interface Issues
38- Instrument Systems
39- Switches in Automated Test Systems
40- Standards-Based Modular Instruments
41- Software and Instrumentation
42- Networked Connectivity for Instruments
43- Computer Connectivity for Instruments
44-Graphical User Interfaces for Instruments
45-Virtual Instruments
46-Distributed Measurement Systems
47-Smart Transducers (Sensors or Actuators), Interfaces, and Networks

1- Introduction to Electronic Instruments and Measurements1
2- Calibration, Traceability and Standards
3-, Basic Electronic Standards
4- Data-Acquisition Systems
5- Transducers
6- Analog-to-Digital Converters
7- Signal Sources
8- Microwave Signal Sources
9- Digital Signal Processing
10- Embedded Computers in Electronic Instruments
11- Power Supplies
12- Instrument Hardware User Interfaces
Voltage, Current, and Resistance Measuring Instruments 13-
14- Oscilloscopes
15- Power Measurements
16- Oscillators, Function Generators, Frequency and Waveform Synthesizers
17- Pulse Generators
18- Microwave Signal Generators
19- Electronic Counters and Frequency and Time Interval Analyzers
20- Precision Time and Frequency Sources
21- Spectrum Analyzers
22- Lightwave Signal Sources
23- Lightwave Signal Analysis
24- Lightwave Component Analyzers
25- Optical Time Domain Reflectometers
26- Impedance Measurement Instruments
27- Semiconductor Test Instrumentation
28- Network Analyzers
29- Logic Analyzers
30- Protocol Analyzers
31- Bit Error Rate Measuring Instruments:
Pattern Generators and Error Detectors
32- Microwave Passive Devices
33- Impedance Considerations
34- Electrical Interference
35- Electrical Grounding
36- Distributed Parameters and Component Considerations
37- Digital Interface Issues
38- Instrument Systems
39- Switches in Automated Test Systems
40- Standards-Based Modular Instruments
41- Software and Instrumentation
42- Networked Connectivity for Instruments
43- Computer Connectivity for Instruments
44-Graphical User Interfaces for Instruments
45-Virtual Instruments
46-Distributed Measurement Systems
47-Smart Transducers (Sensors or Actuators), Interfaces, and Networks

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Published by: hashemowida on Jul 17, 2008
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1.1
Chapter
1
Introduction to Electronic Instrumentsand Measurements
Bonnie Stahlin*
Agilent Technologies Loveland, Colorado 
1.1Introduction
This chapter provides an overview of both the software and hardware componentsof instruments and instrument systems. It introduces the principles of electronicinstrumentation, the basic building blocks of instruments, and the way thatsoftware ties these blocks together to create a solution. This chapter introducespractical aspects of the design and the implementation of instruments andsystems.Instruments and systems participate in environments and topologies thatrange from the very simple to the extremely complex. These include applicationsas diverse as:
Design verification at an engineer’s workbench
Testing components in the expanding semiconductor industry
Monitoring and testing of multinational telecom networks
1.2Instrument Software
Hardware and software work in concert to meet these diverse applications.Instrument software includes the firmware or embedded software in instruments
* Additional material adapted from “Introduction to Electronic Instruments” by RandyCoverstone, Electronic Instrument Handbook 2nd edition, Chapter 4, McGraw-Hill, 1995, and JoeMueller, Hewlett-Packard Co., Loveland.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: Electronic Instrument Handbook
 
1.2Chapter One
that integrates the internal hardware blocks into a subystem that performs auseful measurement. Instrument software also includes system software thatintegrates multiple instruments into a single system. These systems are able toperform more extensive analysis than an individual instrument or combineseveral instruments to perform a task that requires capabilities not included ina single instrument. For example, a particular application might require both asource and a measuring instrument.
1.2.1Instrument embedded software
Figure 1.1 shows a block diagram of the embedded software layers of aninstrument. The I/O hardware provides the physical interface between thecomputer and the instrument. The I/O software delivers the messages to andfrom the computer to the instrument interface software. The measurementinterface software translates requests from the computer or the human into thefundamental capabilities implemented by the instrument. The measurementalgorithms work in conjunction with the instrument hardware to actually sensephysical parameters or generate signals.The embedded software simplifies the instrument design by:
Orchestrating the discrete hardware components to perform a completemeasurement or sourcing function.
Providing the computer interaction. This includes the I/O protocols, parsingthe input, and formatting responses.
Providing a friendly human interface that allows the user to enter numericvalues in whatever units are convenient and generally interface to theinstrument in a way that the user naturally expects.
Performing instrument calibration.
Figure 1.1
Instrument embedded soft-ware.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Introduction to Electronic Instruments and Measurements
 
Introduction to Electronic Instruments and Measurements1.3
1.2.2System software
Figure 1.2 shows the key software layers required on the host side for instrumentsystems. Systems typically take instruments with generic capabilities andprovide some specific function. For instance, an oscilloscope and a functiongenerator can be put together in a system to measure transistor gain. The exactsame system with different software could be used to test the fuel injector froma diesel engine.Generally, the system itself:
 Automates a task that would be either complex or repetitive if performedmanually.
Can perform more complex analysis or capture trends that would beimpractical with a single instrument.
Is specific to a particular application.
Can integrate the results of the test into a broader application. For instance,the system test could run in a manufacturing setting where the system isalso responsible for handling the devices being tested as they come off theproduction line.Please refer to Part 11 of this handbook for an in-depth discussion of instrumentsoftware.
1.3Instruments
In test and measurement applications, it is commonplace to refer to the part of the real or physical world that is of interest as the
device under test (DUT).
measurement instrument is used to determine the value or magnitude of aphysical variable of the DUT. A source instrument generates some sort of stimulus that is used to stimulate the DUT. Although a tremendous variety of instruments exist, all share some basic principles. This section introduces thesebasic principles of the function and design of electronic instruments.
Figure 1.2
Software layers on the hostside for instrument to computer connec-tion.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Introduction to Electronic Instruments and Measurements