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Table Of Contents

List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Boxes
List of Maps
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms
1 Executive Summary
2 Introduction
2.1 Overall AusAID Cambodia Agricultural Program (ACAP)
2.2 Objective of the Diagnostic Study
2.3 Outline of Report
3 Background to the Study
3.1 Features of Agricultural Sector in Cambodia
3.2 Characterization of Agro-ecological Zones and Dominant Farming Systems
3.3 Performance of Agricultural Sector
3.3.1 Productivity
Table 1 Main Poverty Trends 1993/94 – 2004
3.3.2 Land Use
3.3.3 Annual Crop Production
3.4 Policy Context
Box 1 The National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP), 2006-2010: Key Commitments
3.5 Past and Ongoing Projects and Programs
3.5.1 Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA)
3.5.2 AGRISUD Siem Reap and Banteay Meanchey
3.5.3 Agricultural Productivity Improvement Project (APIP)
3.5.4 Agricultural Quality Improvement Project (AQIP)
3.5.5 Agricultural Sector Development Project
3.5.6 Cambodia-Australia Agricultural Extension Project (CAAEP)
3.5.8 CEDAC
3.5.9 CEDAC Organic Certification and Farm Group Forming Project
3.5.13 HURREDO
3.5.14 International Development Enterprises (IDE)
3.5.15 Mekong Private Sector Development Facility (MPDF)
3.5.16 Srer Khmer
3.6 AusAID Country Strategy
Figure 1 AusAID Country Strategy for Cambodia Objective Tree
3.6.1 Increase Productivity and Incomes of the Rural Poor
3.6.2 Reduce Vulnerability of the Poor
Table 2 Donor Initiatives in Agricultural Development and Agribusiness Support
4 Field Work Findings
4.1 Approach to Field Work
5 Where is the Value? Value Chain Analysis
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Value Added – Farmers
5.3 Value Added – Traders
5.3.1 Value Added – Millers
5.3.2 Value Added – Processors
6 Who is Generating Value? The Agroentrepreneurs of Rice- based Systems
6.1 Entrepreneurship
6.2 Seizing Market Opportunities - The Vegetable Trader
6.3 Willingness to Take Risk - The Paddy Trader/Rice Miller
6.4 Making Innovations - The Integrated Farmer
6.5 Continuously Learning New Technologies - The Intensive Farmer
6.6 The Importance of a Distribution Network - The Sauces Processor
6.7 Learning New Technologies to Improve Quality - The Rice Noodles Processor
6.8 Establishing Effective Value Chains - Angkor Kasekam
Box 2. Niche Strategy in Rice Export: The case of Angkor Kasekam in Cambodia
6.9 It is not only about Capital and Transportation Cost - The Large Miller
Box 3 How Large Mills Cope with Changing Paddy Prices?
6.10 Summary
7 How is Value Generated? Unlocking Value in the Rice-based Systems
7.1 Definition of Value Added
7.2 Ways to Increase Value Added in Rice-based Farming Systems
7.2.1 Implications of the Definition of Value Added
7.3 Increasing Value Added at the Farm Level
7.3.1 Increase the price
Box 4 Agricultural Cooperative in Battambang
7.3.2 Increase the quantity
Box 5Farmer Organizations in Cambodia
7.3.3 Reduce the cost
7.4 Increasing Value Added at the Trader/Miller/Processor Level
7.4.1 Increase the price
Box 6. Storage Decisions Make a large Difference in Bottom Line
7.4.2 Increase the quantity
7.4.3 Reduce the cost
8 What Prevents Value to be Increased? Constraints Analysis
8.1 Farmers’ Constraints
8.2 Traders’ Constraints
8.3 Millers and Food Processors’ Constraints
8.4 Service Providers’ Constraints
8.5 Prioritizing the Constraints
Table 8 Percentage of Responses related to Main Constraints
Table 9 Priority Constraints for different Stakeholders
8.6 Quantification of Value Added along the Value Chain
Table 10 Estimated Value Added from Value Chain Interventions
Table 11 Effects of Different Program Interventions on Incomes
Box 8 Success Story of Ken Yean and his wife Neary
9.3 Paths of Poverty Reduction
9.3.1 Creation of Employment Opportunities
9.3.2 Productivity Increase for Smallholders
Table 13 Kampong Thom Rice and Vegetable Farmer
9.3.3 Enterprise Development
Table 14 Landholding and Land Distribution
Table 15 Average Landholding by Landholding Group
Table 16 Operator and Landholding by Agro-ecological Zone
10 Lessons Learned
10.1 About Program Implementation
10.2 About Farmers’ Organizations and Market Linkages
10.3 About Value Addition
Box 9 Improving Water Discharge Efficiency
Box 10 Improving Water Reservoirs
Box 11 Increasing Pumping Efficiency
11 Problem Analysis
11.1 Core Problem, Impacts, and Causes
11.2 Identification of the Core Problem for Program Formulation
11.2.1 Low and Variable Growth of Agriculture
Figure 10 Problem Tree Analysis for Program Formulation
11.2.2 In spite of rice self-sufficiency, poverty is still widespread
11.2.3 A vision of Cambodia Agriculture Based on Increasing Value-Added
11.2.4 Unlocking the value in Rice-based farming systems
11.2.5 The Core Problem
11.3 Impacts of the Core Problem
Figure 11 Impacts of the Core Problem
11.4 Causes of the Core Problem
11.5 Cross cutting factors
12 Strategic Options for Program Formulation
12.1 Identification of Strategic Options
12.2 Supply-driven Technologies Option
12.2.1 Description and Rationale
12.2.2 SWOT Analysis
12.2.3 Expected Costs and Benefits
12.2.4 Assessment
12.3 Demand-driven Technologies Option
12.3.1 Description and Rationale
12.3.2 SWOT Analysis
12.3.3 Expected Cost and Benefits
12.3.4 Assessment
12.4 Credit Interventions Option28
12.4.1 Description and Rationale
12.4.2 SWOT Analysis
12.4.3 Expected Costs and Benefits
12.4.4 Assessment
Box 14 How do Credit Components Perform?
12.5 Policy and Institutional Reforms
12.5.1 Description and Rationale
12.5.2 SWOT Analysis
12.5.3 Expected Costs and Benefits
12.5.4 Assessment
12.6 Infrastructure Development
12.6.1 Description and Rationale
12.6.2 SWOT Analysis
12.6.3 Expected Costs and Benefits
12.6.4 Assessment
12.7 Value Chain Linkages
12.7.1 Description and Rationale
12.7.2 SWOT Analysis
12.7.3 Expected Costs and Benefits
12.7.4 Assessment
12.8 Summary of Alternative Strategy Options
13 Approach to Program Formulation
13.1 Introduction
13.2 General Features of the Program
Box 15 The IDE Approach to Poverty Reduction
13.3 Guiding Principles
13.4 Focus
13.5 Prioritizing the Constraints to be addressed by the Program
Figure 14 Clarifying the Constraints to be Addressed by the Program
13.5.2 Constraints the Program should not address
13.5.3 Constraints the Program could address
13.5.4 Constraints the Program should address
13.6 Selection of Provinces for Farming System Interventions
13.6.1 Process of Selection
Table 19 Process of Selection of Provinces for Field Work
14 Proposed Components of the Agricultural Program
14.1 Program Framework
14.2 A Fully Integrated Value Chain Program
14.3 The Value Chain Development Component (VCDC)
14.3.1 Target Groups
14.3.2 Service Providers and Demand-driven Investments
14.3.3 Coordination with Other Projects and Initiatives
14.4 The Policy, Capacity, and Management Component (PCMC)
14.5 Common Thread
14.6.1 Indicators
14.7 Indicative Sub-Projects for Funding
Table 20 Example of Eligible Proposals under the Matching Grant Fund
Box 16 Example of Proposal for a Smallholder Irrigation Scheme - 1
Box 17 Example of Proposal for a Smallholder Irrigation Scheme - 2
Box 18 Example of Proposals for Farmers Linking to Market - 1
Box 19 Example of Proposals for Farmers Linking to Market - 2
Box 21 Example of Proposals Under Farmer to Enterprise Contract Farming - 2
15 Economic Analysis and Viability of Matching Grant Projects
15.1 Introduction
15.2.1 Outline of Proposed Grant Aided Support
15.2.2 Interventions Proposed for Supporting the Proposal
15.2.3 Details of Indicative Model
15.2.4 Impact on Poverty Reduction
15.2.5 Financial Viability
15.2.6 Sensitivity Tests
15.3.1 Outline of Proposed Grant Aided Support
15.3.2 Interventions Proposed for Supporting the Proposal
15.3.3 Details of Indicative Model
15.3.4 Impact on Poverty Reduction
15.3.5 Financial Viability
15.3.6 Sensitivity Tests
15.4.1 Outline of Proposed Grant Aided Support
15.4.2 Interventions Proposed for Supporting Proposal
15.4.3 Details of Indicative Model
15.4.4 Financial Viability
15.4.5 Impact on Poverty Reduction
15.4.6 Sensitivity Tests
Table 25 Financial Analysis for Contract Farming System for Paddy
Table 26 Sensitivity Analysis for Contract Farming System for Paddy
16 Institutional Framework
16.1 General Principles
16.2 Steering Committee
16.3 Monitoring and Evaluation Unit
16.4 Program Management
16.4.1 Program Management Unit
16.4.2 Provincial Coordination Units
16.5 The Provincial Committees
16.6 The Commune Councils
16.7 The Technical Assistance
16.8 Matching Grant Scheme
17 Expected Impacts and Risks of the Proposed Program
17.2.4 Risks
Table 29 Tentative Schedule for the Design Phase
19 References
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Published by: khomchandara on Oct 20, 2010
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