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Biosci chap1 (notes)

Biosci chap1 (notes)

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Published by Man Dejelo

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Published by: Man Dejelo on Oct 20, 2010
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05/23/2012

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CHAPTER 1
 An Overview of Anatomy & Physiology
y
 
Anatomy
 study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to oneanother
o
 
Gross anatomy 
 large body structures
o
 
Mic
ros
c
op
ic
anatomy 
 small body structures
y
 
Ph
ysiology
 study of how the body and its parts work or function
o
 
Neu
rophys
ology 
 workings of nervous system
o
 
ard 
a
c
phys
ology 
 function of heart1.
 
R
elationship between anatomy and physiology
y
 
T
he parts of your body form a well-organized unit, and each of those parts has a job to do to makethe body operate as a whole
y
 
 A
toms
  tiny building blocks of matter; combine to form molecules such as water, sugar, andproteins
y
 
e
lls
 Smallest units of all living things
y
 
ss
ue
s
  Groups of similar cells that have a common function
y
 
O
rgan  
Structure composed of two or more tissue types that performs a specific function for thebody
y
 
O
rgan syst 
e
m
  Group of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose
y
 
O
rgan
sm
 Highest level of structural organization; 11 organ systems2.
 
Organ System Overview
y
 
I
ntegumentary System
-External covering of the body-Waterproofs the body and cushions and protects the deeper tissues-Excretes salts and urea in perspiration-
R
egulates body temperature
y
 
Skeletal System
-Consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints-Supports body, provides framework to cause movement-
H
e
matopo
e
s
s
:
formation of blood cells
y
 
M
uscular System
-Muscles contract or shorten-movement occurs
 
y
 
N
ervous System
-Bodys fast acting control system-Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors-
R
espond to irritants/stimuli-
R
esponds by activating the appropriate body effectors
y
 
E
ndocrine System
-Controls body activities; acts slowly-Produce hormones and release them in the blood to travel to organs-Pituitary, thyroids, parathyroids, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries, testes-Growth, reproduction, and food use by cells are all controlled by hormones
y
 
C
ardiovascular System
-Heart and blood vessels-Blood is the transporting fluid (carries oxygen, nutrients, and hormones) to cells-WBC protect the body from foreign invaders (bacteria, toxins, tumor cells)-Heart acts as the blood pump
y
 
L
ymp
h
atic System
-Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils-Lymphatic vessels return fluid leaked from the blood back to the vessels-Lymph nodes help to cleanse the blood and house cells
y
 
R
espiratory System
-Keep the body constantly supplied with oxygen to remove carbon dioxide-Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs-Lungs have tiny air sacs; gases are transported to and from the blood through thin walls of air sacs
y
 
D
igestive System
-
T
ube running through the body from mouth to anus-Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines, rectum-Break down food; deliver products to blood-Undigested food leaves through anus as feces-Breakdown activities begin in the mouth and end in the small intestine-
R
eclaim water-Liver
:
the bile it produces helps to break down fats-Pancreas
:
delivers digestive enzymes to small intestines
y
 
U
rinary System
-Body produces wastes as by-products; wastes must be disposed-Body cells break down proteins and nucleic acids
 
-
R
emoves the nitrogen-containing wastes from the blood and flushes them from the body in urine-Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra-Maintains bodys water and salt (electrolyte) balance and regulating the acid-base balance of blood
y
 
R
eproductive System
-Produce offspring-
T
estes produce sperm (Scrotum, penis, accessory glands, duct system)-Ovaries produce eggs (uterine tubes, uterus, vagina)
M
aintaining Life
1.
 
Necessary Life Functions
y
 
M
aintaining boundaries
-inside remains distinct from its outside-Every cell is surrounded by an external membrane-Enclosed by the Integumentary system (protects internal organs from drying out, from bacteria,from the damaging effects of heat, sunlight, and chemical substances from the externalenvironment
y
 
M
ovement
-Activities promoted by the muscular system-
T
he skeletal system provides the bones that the muscles pull-Substances (blood, foodstuffs, urine) are propelled through the internal organs
y
 
R
esponsiveness
-Ability to sense changes in the environment and how to react to them-You do not need to think about it, it just happens!-Nervous system bears the major responsibility for responsiveness
y
 
D
igestion
-Process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can then be absorbed in blood
y
 
M
etabolism
- refers to all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells-breaking down complex substances into simpler building blocks-Using nutrients and oxygen to produce molecules of A
T
P-Depends on digestive and respiratory systems to make nutrients and oxygen available; andcardiovascular system to distribute needed substances-Metabolism is regulated by hormones secreted by the endocrine system
y
 
Ex
cretion
-Process of removing wastes from the body

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