series of footnotes to Plato.”
What we know of philosophy in this day was indebted from the past. Theearly Greek thinkers had been influenced by their neighboring civilizations like Babylonia, Egypt, andsome parts of Eastern society, and deciphered them according to their own intelligible culture.The aggressiveness of these early thinkers, especially in the search to have an explanation to what wasthe basic stuff,
, that constituted the world made them great today. They enjoyed therefutation of considering them as the early natural scientists of Western culture not because of theconclusion they reached and formulated but because of their initiative pioneering method of philosophizing that inspired the latter scientists to break the chains that bound them. The flourishingGreek culture shaped the highest peak of the great triune philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.The act of philosophizing gave more focus on the idealistic view, most especially that of Plato and witha dualistic aesthetic and epistemology by which there is an object-subject dichotomy. The object isbeing differentiated from the subject as a knower. Plato himself had been influenced by Parmenides inhis metaphysics of unchangeable world. Plato also borrowed from Socrates’ idea and baptized it in thecontext within itself.We can also notice, however, that there is a considerable rejection and transformation of point of view. Socrates, a student of the Sophist, disregarded its teaching of relativistic morality of “might isright”. Aristotle himself a brilliant student of Plato, endeavored a departure from his teacher’s tenetson idealism by forwarding more practical philosophies.Moreover, at the time of Greece’ diminishing political power due to invasion and war, the Greeks’ viewof philosophy changed. History gave birth to the emergence of Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skepticism, andneo-Platonism, fresh philosophies that would ignite human thought, and the focus of such undertakingswas more on the practical side. Therefore, such way of philosophizing restricted with the presentcontext of the time yet advancing them to a more vivid enigma. No one would dare to talk aboutPlato’s theory of Form when they saw themselves devoid of a social order and facing some wars.Epicureanism borrowed its tenets from the materialistic-atomistic theory of Democritus, suggestingthat the existence of the world was a result of the collision of infinite, indestructible atoms. Thebigger the atoms formed during collision would account for the formation of bigger bodies in theuniverse. This implies that the world, including man and God, is the product of accidental collision of atoms. This realization helped man to have an intellectual peace and the absence from the fear of afterlife and punishment. However, Epicurus and his followers did not only borrow this without anyalteration from their individual ideas. There was a specification, and the evidence was that Epicurus,despite his materialistic point of view, employed a moralistic principle of happiness based on pleasure.