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1 GT5-8 Comp & Turbine Design

1 GT5-8 Comp & Turbine Design

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Published by: Fazalur Rehman Babar on Oct 21, 2010
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02/16/2013

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GT 5-8Compressor and Turbine Design
Frame MS 9001 E 
 
1.
GAS TURBINEGAS TURBINEDESIGN 
1.1
G
ENERALABOUT
G
AS
T
URBINE
5-8
GT 5-8 is a package power plant, as furnished for most installations, is comprised of thesingle-shaft, simple cycle, heavy duty gas turbine unit driving a generator. Fuel and air are used by the gas turbine unit to produce the shaft horsepower necessary to drive certainaccessories, compressor and the generator.The turbine unit is composed of a starting device, support systems, an axial-flowcompressor, combustion system components and a three-stage turbine. Both compressor and turbine are directly connected with an in-line, single-shaft rotor supported by three pressure lubricated bearings. The inlet end of the rotor shaft is coupled to an accessorygear having integral shafts that drive the fuel pump, lubrication pump, and other systemcomponents.
1.2
G
AS
T
URBINE
F
UNCTIONAL
D
ESCRIPTION
When the turbine starting system is actuated and the clutch is engaged, ambient air isdrawn through the inlet plenum assembly, filtered, then compressed in the 17 stages of axial-flow compressor. For pulsation protection during start-up, the 11
th
stage extractionvalves are opened and the variable inlet guide vanes are in the closed position.When the speed relay corresponding to 95 % (2850 rpm) speed actuates, the 11
th
stageextraction bleed valves close automatically and the variable inlet guide vane actuator energizes at 82 % speed to open the inlet guide vanes (I.G.V.) to (57°) the normal turbineoperating position. Compressed air from the compressor flows into the annular spacesurrounding the 14 combustors, from which it flows into the spaces between the outer combustion casing (sleeve) and the combustion liners. The fuel nozzles introduce the fuelinto each of the 14 combustors where it mixes with the combustion air and is ignited by both (or one, which is sufficient) of the two spark plugs.At the instant, one or both of the two spark plugs ignite their combustors, the remainingcombustors are also ignited by crossfire tubes that connect the reaction zones of thecombustors. After the rotor approaches operating speed, combustion chamber pressurecauses the spark plugs to retract to remove their electrodes from the hot flame zone.The hot gases from the combustors expand into the 14 separate transition pieces attachedto the aft end of the combustor liners and flow towards the three stage turbine section of the machine. Each stage consists of a row of fixed nozzles followed by a row of rotate-able turbine buckets. In each nozzle row, the kinetic energy of the jet is increased, with anassociated pressure drop and in each following row of moving bucket a portion of thekinetic energy of the jet is absorbed as useful work on the turbine rotor.
 Prepared by: Fazal-ur-Rehman BabarGT 5-8
27
 
After passing through the third stage buckets, the exhaust gases are directed into theexhaust hood and diffuser which contains a series of turning vanes to turn the gases fromthe axial direction to a radial direction, thereby minimizing exhaust hood losses. Then, thegases pass into the exhaust plenum. The resultant shaft rotation is used to turn thegenerator rotor, compressor rotor and to drive certain accessories through accessory gear at various speeds. NOTE: By definition, the air inlet of the gas turbine is the forward end, while the exhaust end isthe aft end. The forward and aft ends of each component are determined in like manner with respect to its orientation within the complete unit. The RIGHT and LEFT sides of theturbine or of a particular component are determined by standing forward and looking aft.
2.2.COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR  
The axial-flow compressor consists of the rotor and the enclosing casing. Included withinthe compressor casing are the inlet guide vanes, the 17 stages of rotor and stator bladesand the exit guide vanes. In the compressor, air is confined to the space between the rotor and stator blades where it is compressed in stages by a series of alternate rotating andstationary airfoil-shaped blades.The rotor blades supply the force needed to compress the air in each stage and the stator  blades guide the air so that it enters in the following rotor stage at the proper angle. Thecompressed air exits through the compressor discharge casing to the combustionchambers. Air is extracted from the compressor 5
th
stage for bearing sealing and from 11
th
stage for pulsation control. Since minimum clearance between rotor and stator provides best performance in a compressor, parts have to be made and assembled very accurately.
2.1
C
OMPRESSOR
R
OTOR
The compressor rotor is an assembly of 15individual wheels, two stub-shafts, each withan integral wheel, a speed ring, tie bolts andthe compressor rotor blades. Each wheel andthe wheel portion of each stub-shaft have slots broached around its periphery. The roto blades and spacers are inserted into theseslots. Selective positioning of the wheels ismade during assembly to reduce balancecorrection. After assembly, the rotor isdynamically balanced to a fine limit. Forwardstub-shaft is machined to provide the forwardand aft thrust faces and the journal for the no.1 bearing, as well as the sealing surfaces for the no.1 bearing oil seals and the compressor low-pressure air seals.
 Prepared by: Fazal-ur-Rehman BabarGT 5-8
28

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