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Numerical Methods of Exploration Seismology

Numerical Methods of Exploration Seismology

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Published by Carlos Alejandro

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Published by: Carlos Alejandro on Oct 21, 2010
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Numerical Methods
of 
Exploration Seismology
with algorithms in MATLAB
Gary F. MargraveDepartment of Geology and GeophysicsThe University of CalgaryJuly 11, 2003
 
Preface
The most important thing to know about this draft is that it is unfinished. This means that itmust be expected to have rough passages, incomplete sections, missing references, and referencesto nonexistent material. Despite these shortcomings, I hope this document will be welcomed forits description of the CREWES MATLAB software and its discussion of velocity, raytracing andmigration algorithms. I only ask that the reader be tolerant of the rough state of these notes.Suggestions for the improvement of the present material or for the inclusion of other subjects aremost welcome.Exploration seismology is a complex technology that blends advanced physics, mathematicsand computation. Often, the computational aspect is neglected in teaching because, traditionally,seismic processing software is part of an expensive and complex system. In contrast, this book isstructured around a set of computer algorithms that run effectively on a small personal computer.These algorithms are written in MATLAB code and so the reader should find access to a MATLABinstallation. This is not the roadblock that it might seem because MATLAB is rapidly gainingpopularity and the student version costs little more than a typical textbook.The algorithms are grouped into a small number of 
toolboxes
that effectively extend the function-ality of MATLAB. This allows the student to experiment with the algorithms as part of the processof study. For those who only wish to gain a conceptual overview of the subject, this may not be anadvantage and they should probably seek a more appropriate book. On the other hand, those whowish to master the subject and perhaps extend it through the development of new methods, are myintended audience. The study of these algorithms, including running them on actual data, greatlyenriches learning.The writing of this book has been on my mind for many years though it has only become physicalrelatively recently. The material is the accumulation of many years of experience in both the hydro-carbon exploration industry and the academic world. The subject matter encompasses the breadthof exploration seismology but, in detail, reflects my personal biases. In this preliminary edition,the subject matter includes raytracing, elementary migration, some aspects of wave-equation mod-elling, and velocity manipulation. Eventually, it will also include theoretical seismograms, wavelets,amplitude adjustment, deconvolution, filtering (1D and 2D), statics adjustment, normal moveoutremoval, stacking and more. Most of the codes for these purposes already exists and have been usedin research and teaching at the University of Calgary since 1995.During the past year, Larry Lines and Sven Treitel have been a constant source of encouragementand assistance. Pat Daley’s guidance with the raytracing algorithms has been most helpful. Pat,Larry, Sven, Dave Henley, and Peter Manning have graciously served as editors and test readers.Many students and staff with CREWES have stress-tested the MATLAB codes. Henry Bland’stechnical computer support has been essential. Rob Stewart and Don Lawton have been there withmoral support on many occasions.I thank you for taking the time to examine this document and I hope that you find it rewarding.ii
 
Contents
Preface ii1 Introduction 1
1.1 Scope and Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 Why MATLAB? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.2 Legal matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2 MATLAB conventions used in this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3 Dynamic range and seismic data display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.3.1 Single trace plotting and dynamic range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.3.2 Multichannel seismic display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.3.3 The
plotimage
picking facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.3.4 Drawing on top of seismic data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.4 Programming tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.4.1 Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.4.2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19The structure of a function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.4.3 Coping with errors and the MATLAB debugger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.5 Programming for eciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241.5.1 Vector addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241.5.2 Vector programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251.5.3 The COLON symbol in MATLAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261.5.4 Special values: NaN, Inf, and eps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271.6 Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2 Signal Theory 29
2.1 Convolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292.1.1 Convolution as ltering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292.1.2 Convolution by polynomial multiplication - the Z transform . . . . . . . . . . 322.1.3 Convolution as a matrix multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.1.4 Convolution as a weighted average . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.2 The Fourier Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352.2.1 The temporal Fourier transform and its inverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352.2.2 Real and imaginary spectra, even and odd functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372.2.3 The convolution theorem and the differentiation theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 382.2.4 The phase-shift theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.2.5 The spectrum of a real-valued signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41iii

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