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Unified Process Practitioners

Unified Process Practitioners

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09/28/2010

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3
C
H A P T E R
1
Welcome to the IBM RationalUnified Process andCertification
By Ahmad K. Shuja
This chapter is about RUP’s breadth and not its depth, so this introductory chapter will be milewide and inch deep in terms of content. It introduces some of the core concepts that the RUP isfounded on but does not go into detail about its different parts. It does, however, discuss the mostimportant aspects of the RUP as they relate to software development. This chapter provides anoverview of the book content.
 An Overview of the Rational Unified Process
The IBM Rational Unified Process,also known as the RUP, is a process framework for successfuliterative-incremental software development. In the software engineering domain, there are anumber of development methodologies that organizations have successfully adapted and adoptedto meet specific business needs. These range from traditional waterfall development to more agileones. Figure 1-1 shows some of the more famous methodologies and where each can be posi-tioned with respect to agility and discipline. Note that the up-front goals modeling componentmay not be directly associated with any given software development methodology but is there toensure alignment between new software products or releases and the business strategy.At its core, RUP is defined by the following three central elements:Key principles for business-driven developmentA framework of reusable method content and process building blocksThe underlying method and process definition language
 
Key Principles
RUP focuses on six key principles in software engineering (formerly known as
best practices
).These principles, which are easy to memorize because they start with the letters
 A
through
,constitute the foundation of the RUP:
A
dapt the process.
B
alance stakeholder priorities.
C
ollaborate across teams.
D
emonstrate value iteratively.
E
levate the level of abstraction.
F
ocus continuously on quality.The key principals are not sequential; in fact, you will see in Chapter 2, “Key Principles forBusiness-Driven Development,” that the principles actually reinforce each other. For example,the principle of demonstrating value iteratively supports the principle of focusing continuouslyon quality. Similarly, other key principles support and drive one another. Chapter 2 explains allsix key principles in detail and discusses their inter-relationships.
 A Framework of Reusable Method Content and Process Building Blocks
A
process framework
can bedefined as an incomplete support structure in which anotherprocess can be organized and developed. Therefore, you need to finish a process framework 
4Chapter 1Welcome to the IBM Rational Unied Process and Certication
SoftwareSolution
(Tangible Solution) 
PlanDrivenBusinessGoal(
Business Strategy 
)AgileGoalsModelingBusinessGoalsAnalysisPrograms / Projects required tomeet business goals
identified 
Software Solution
delivered 
XPSCRUMRUP
Waterfall Development
Figure 1-1
Methodologie
s
m
a
p
 
before you can apply it to specific projects within an organization. Similarly, you need to finishthe RUP skeleton and its libraries to fit the organization.The RUP framework is defined by a family of method plug-ins from which, based on theunique business needs as well as the context (technical and management complexity), organiza-tions are able to create their own method configurations and tailored processes. RUP provides anarchitectural foundation and wealth of material from which a process definition can be con-structed, therefore enabling the adopting organization to configure and extend that foundation asdesired.A few factors influence the configuring and tailoring of RUP:Project complexityIn most cases, the more complex and technical the project, the greater the formality andcontrol required to ensure its successful completion and timely delivery. This formalitynormally involves greater plan-driven development and more discipline. The term com-monly used in RUP to determine the level of formality and control that is requiredwithin the process is
ceremony
. Figure 1-2 shows the relationship between complexityand ceremony. Accordingly, the level of ceremony affects the number of artifacts anddetails of the workflow descriptions.Organizational maturityLess mature organizations might require morediscipline than more mature ones.Organization cultureCulture plays an important role in the successful adaptation and adoption of theprocess.Regulatory compliance and policy requirementsSome industries, especially financial and healthcare, might require more controls, whichin turn require a high ceremony process and more artifacts.Development typeThe type of software development, such as green field versus COTS based,affects theprocess.Organization sizeThe size of the organization determines how to customize the RUP to enable successfuldevelopment and timely delivery of the software solutions.These factors lead to one or more RUP flavors meeting the specific needs of an organi-zation. IT organizations commonly develop multiple RUP instances to meet the needs of differenttypes of projects. That approach satisfies the need for different levels of ceremony for small orlarge IT projects. In Part IV, we discuss Rational Method Composer, which can be used foreffectively and efficiently customizing and publishing various flavors of RUP. We include somefurther discussion within Chapter 13, “Environment.” Even though hundreds, if not thousands,
An Overview of the Rational Unied Process5

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