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p297-312

p297-312

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Published by Tilman Aretz
Pages 297-312 from "The Greater China Factbook", ISBN-13: 978-986-7762-97-9 / ISBN-10: 9867762975 by Tilman Aretz (http://taretz.blogspot.com)
Pages 297-312 from "The Greater China Factbook", ISBN-13: 978-986-7762-97-9 / ISBN-10: 9867762975 by Tilman Aretz (http://taretz.blogspot.com)

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Published by: Tilman Aretz on Jul 18, 2008
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THE GREATER CHINA FACTBOOK\u2014\u2014\u2014Part III: China\u2019s history
Chronology of Greater China 1911-2006
297
Nov. 5: In a Russian-Chinese agreement (Zhong E shengming\u4e2d\u4fc4\u8072\u660e), both sides
recognize the autonomy of Mongolia
1914
March 3: Execution of KMT activist Lo Fu-hsing\u7f85\u798f\u661f in Taiwan by the Japanese
colonial authority for his involvement in the Miaoli Incident (Miaoli shijian\u82d7\u6817\u4e8b
\u4ef6)
April 8: Chinese-French Convention held to discuss the extension of Concession
boundaries; two Chinese appointed to advise the French Municipal Council

April 27: The Simla agreement (ximula tiaoyue\u897f\u59c6\u62c9\u689d\u7d04) between the UK and Tibet is signed\u2014parts of eastern Tibet are ceded to China, but the major part of Tibet retains de facto independence from China (under British control) until 1951, the McMahon Line as boundary between Tibet and India is drawn from Bhutan in the west to the great bend of the Brahmaputra River in the east

May 1: Yuan Shikai annuls the provisional ROC Constitution and dissolves the parlia-
ment
July 8: In Tokyo Sun Yat-sen establishes the \u201cChinese Revolutionary Party\u201d (zhonghua
gemingdang\u4e2d\u83ef\u9769\u547d\u9ee8)
Aug. 6: Yuan Shikai declares the ROC\u2019s neutrality in WWI
Aug. 23: Japan declares war against Germany and occupies Jiaozhou\u81a0\u5dde (Shandong
Province)
Sept. 2: Japanese troops land in Longkou\u9f8d\u53e3 (Shandong Province)
Dec. 20: In Taiwan, Itagaki Taisuke\u677f\u57a3\u9000\u52a9 establishes the \u201cTaiwan Assimilation
Society\u201d (Taiwan tonghuahui\u53f0\u7063\u540c\u5316\u6703, Jap. Taiwan dokakai)
1915
Jan. 18: Japan sends the \u201c21 Demands\u201d (ershiyi tiao yaoqiu\u4e8c\u5341\u4e00\u689d\u8981\u6c42) to China,
aiming to make Northern China a sphere of Japanese influence
Jan. 26: The \u201cTaiwan Assimilation Society\u201d is dissolved by the Japanese governor of
Taiwan, General Sakuma Samata\u4f50\u4e45\u9593\u5de6\u99ac\u592a
May 15: Yuan Shikai signs the \u201cSino-Japanese Agreement\u201d (Zhongri xinyue\u4e2d\u65e5\u65b0\u7d04),
recognizing most of the 21 Demands
May 25: The Treaty of Kyakhta (a place on the Russian-Mongolian border) signed by
China, Russia, and Mongolia formalizes Mongolian autonomy
July: The Hsilaian Uprising (Xilai\u2019an shijian\u897f\u4f86\u5eb5\u4e8b\u4ef6, also called the \u201cTapani Inci-
dent\u201d [qiaobani shijian\u7901\u5427\u54d6\u4e8b\u4ef6]), led by Yu Qing-fang\u4f59\u6e05\u82b3, starts in Tainan
\u53f0\u5357(Taiwan); it is crushed some two months later by the Japanese authorities
and results in more than 1000 casualties on both sides

Sept. 15: First issue of the magazine NEW YOUTH (xin qingnian\u65b0\u9752\u5e74, publication stopped in July 1925), advocating the use of plain language (baihua\u767d\u8a71) in writing instead of Classical Chinese (wenyan\u6587\u8a00)

Oct. 25: Sun Yat-sen marries Soong Ching-ling\u5b8b\u6176\u9f61 (since 1914 Sun\u2019s secretary)
in Tokyo
Dec. 12: Yuan Shikai declares himself emperor, title of reign: \u201cHongxian\u201d\u6d2a\u61b2
Dec. 25: Military uprising against Yuan Shikai led by Tsai O\u8521\u9354, Tang Chi-yao\u5510\u7e7c
\u582f, and Li Lieh-chun \u674e\u70c8\u921ein Yunnan Province
1916\u20131928: Warlord period
1916
June 6: Death of Yuan Shikai, a period of division and rule of warlords (junfa\u8ecd\u95a5)
begins
June 7: Li Yuan-hung\u9ece\u5143\u6d2a becomes president of the Peking government
THE GREATER CHINA FACTBOOK\u2014\u2014\u2014Part III: China\u2019s history
Chronology of Greater China 1911-2006
298
July 3: A Russian-Japanese Convention concerning transportation issues in Manchuria
is signed in St. Petersburg
1917
January: The ROC receives its first Japanese loan, arranged by banker Nishihara
Kamezo\u897f\u539f\u9f9c\u4e09 on orders of Prime Minister Terauchi Seiki\u5bfa\u5167\u6b63\u6bc5
July 1: The monarchist General Chang Hsun\u5f35\u52f3 unsuccessfully launches a coup to
restore the Manchu Dynasty
July 31: An earthquake with a magnitude of 6.5 on the Richter scale hits Daguan\u5927
\u95dc (Yunnan Province), 1069 people die
Aug. 14: The Peking government declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary and

enters WWI on the side of the allies
Aug. 25: Sun Yat-sen forms a military government in Guangzhou
November: Premier Tuan Chi-jui resigns

1918
February: First discovery of prehistoric human fossils at Jigushan\u96de\u9aa8\u5c71, Zhoukou-
dian\u5468\u53e3\u5e97 (Fangshan District\u623f\u5c71\u5340, Peking City)
Feb. 13: An earthquake with a magnitude of 7.3 jolts Nan\u2019ao\u5357\u6fb3 (Shantou\u6c55\u982d,
Guangdong Province), 1000 die
August: At Beijing University (Beijing Daxue\u5317\u4eac\u5927\u5b78/Beida\u5317\u5927) Mao Zedong\u6bdb\u6fa4
\u6771becomes library assistant under Li Dazhao \u674e\u5927\u91d7
Sept. 4: General Hsu Shih-chang\u5f90\u4e16\u660c is elected president of the Peking govern-
ment
Sept. 18: Chinese troops occupy Outer Mongolia
1919
March: The palace-like office building of Taiwan\u2019s Japanese governor in Taipei is
completed after almost seven years of construction

April 30: The Paris Peace Conference allows Japan to retain control of Germany\u2019s colonies in Shandong Province (Jiaozhou, Qingdao\u9752\u5cf6 etc.) although China had also participated on the side of the victors of WWI

May 4: After news spread that Germany\u2019s colonies in China are not to be returned but will be held by Japan, more than 30,000 students protest in Peking; this is the beginning of the May Fourth Movement (wusi yundong\u4e94\u56db\u904b\u52d5)

June 28: The Treaty of Versailles is signed, Japan receives Germany\u2019s colonies in
China, China\u2019s delegate Wellington Koo\u9867\u7dad\u921e refuses to sign the treaty

July 25: In the Karakhan Manifesto, the Soviets unilaterally renounce their privileges in China (named after Lew M. Karakhan [1889-1937], commissar for foreign affairs)

Oct. 10: The Chinese Revolutionary Party is reorganized as the KMT (Zhongguo guo-
mindang\u4e2d\u570b\u570b\u6c11\u9ee8)
October: Den Kenjiro\u7530\u5065\u6cbb\u90ce becomes the first civilian Japanese governor of
Taiwan; a period of relatively liberal rule on the island begins
Nov. 17: Hsu Shih-chang urges Mongolian politicians to sign a document that would
end Mongolian autonomy
December: Li Dazhao organizes a Marxist study group
1920
January: Taiwanese students organize the \u201cNew People Association\u201d (xin minhui\u65b0\u6c11
\u6703, Jap. shin minkai) in Tokyo
Jan. 10: The Treaty of Versailles goes into effect
May: Chen Duxiu\u9673\u7368\u79c0 organizes a Marxist study group in Shanghai
June 5: An earthquake with a magnitude of 8.3 shakes the ocean floor off Taiwan\u2019s
east coast near Hualien\u82b1\u84ee
THE GREATER CHINA FACTBOOK\u2014\u2014\u2014Part III: China\u2019s history
Chronology of Greater China 1911-2006
299

June 14: Hostilities between the warlords of the Chihli faction (Zhili pai\u76f4\u96b8\u6d3e) and the (pro-Japanese) Anhui faction (Anhui pai\u5b89\u5fbd\u6d3e)\u2014Tsao Kun\u66f9\u9315 (Chihli) and Chang Tso-lin\u5f35\u4f5c\u9716 (Fengtien faction [Fengtian pai\u5949\u5929\u6d3e]) join forces against Tuan Chi-jui (Anhui)

June 29: China is granted membership in the League of Nations

July: In Tokyo, the \u201cNew People Association\u201d publishes the magazine TAIWAN YOUTH (Taiwan qingnian\u53f0\u7063\u9752\u5e74, Jap. Taiwan seinen), name changed to TAIWAN on April 10, 1924

Sept. 27: Second Karakhan Manifesto
Dec. 16: An earthquake with a magnitude of 8.6 on the Richter scale rocks Haiyuan
\u6d77\u539f(Ningxia Province), more than 100,000 people in the provinces of Ningxia
and Gansu die
December: Mao Zedong marries Yang Kaihui\u694a\u958b\u6167
In 1920, Chen Jiongming\u9673\u70af\u660e, warlord in Guangdong, gives Sun Yat-sen and his
republican government refuge
1921

Jan. 30: Lin Hsien-tang\u6797\u737b\u5802 and other Taiwanese activists submit a petition (one of a total of 15 issued between 1921 and 1934) in Tokyo, start of the Petition Movement (qingyuan yundong\u8acb\u9858\u904b\u52d5, Jap. seigan undo); in reaction to the Taiwanese petition, Japan\u2019s Diet (guohui\u570b\u6703, Jap. kokkai) declares Japanese law to be effective in Taiwan (Law No. 3 replaces Law No. 63)

May 5: Sun Yat-sen forms a government in Guangzhou
July 1: Establishment of the Chinese Communist Party (Zhongguo gongchandang\u4e2d\u570b\u5171
\u7522\u9ee8, abbrev. CCP)
July: Mongolian rebels expel Chinese troops from Outer Mongolia (operation
completed by mid-1922)
July 23\u201331: First CCP party congress in Shanghai
Oct. 17: Chiang Wei-shui\u8523\u6e2d\u6c34 organizes the \u201cTaiwan Cultural Association\u201d (Tai-
wan wenhua xiehui\u53f0\u7063\u6587\u5316\u5354\u6703, Jap. Taiwan bunka kyokai)
October: Excavations of the Yangshao culture (Yangshao wenhua\u4ef0\u97f6\u6587\u5316) begin in
Yangshao Village (Henan Province)
Nov. 12: Start of the Washington Naval Conference (participants: US, UK, Italy,
France, and Japan)
1922
Feb. 4: Following negotiations in Washington, Japan returns Qingdao and Jiaozhou to
China
Feb. 6: Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the US sign the Five-Power Naval Limitation
Treaty in Washington
April 28: Hostilities break out between the warlords Wu Pei-fu\u5433\u4f69\u5b5a (Chihli
faction) and Chang Tso-lin
June 2: Hsu Shih-chang resigns as president of the Peking government, nine days
later Li Yuan-hung resumes his former post

June 16: Warlord Chen Jiongming turns against Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek\u8523\u4ecb\u77f3 arrives from Shanghai to help and saves Sun from danger, the original manuscript of Sun\u2019s \u201cThree Principles of the People\u201d (sanmin zhuyi\u4e09\u6c11\u4e3b\u7fa9) is lost in the fire ignited by Chen Jiongming\u2019s attack

July 16\u201323: Second CCP party congress in Shanghai
In 1922, Chinese \u201cBaihua\u201d is recognized as the official language of China
1923
Jan. 26: The Sun-Joffe Manifesto is signed, foundation for the KMT\u2019s cooperation

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