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IGNOU ms 66 ans

IGNOU ms 66 ans

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IGNOU MBA ms 66
IGNOU MBA ms 66

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Answer all the Questions.1. What is marketing research? Explain the different stages of marketing research with the help of an example.Identify the various problems in conducting marketing research in India?Marketing research
is the systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of data about issues relating tomarketingproducts andservices. The goal of marketing research is to identify and assess how changing elements of themarketing miximpacts customer  behavior. The term is commonly interchanged with
market research
; however, expert practitioners may wish to draw adistinction, in that
market 
research is concerned specifically withmarkets, while
marketing 
research is concerned specificallyabout marketing processes.
[1]
 Marketing research is often partitioned into two sets of categorical pairs, either by target market:
y
 
C
onsumer
marketing research, and
y
 
B
usiness-to-business
(B2B) marketing researchOr, alternatively, by methodological approach:
y
 
Qualitative
marketing research, and
y
 
Quantitative
marketing researchConsumer marketing research is a form of appliedsociologythat concentrates on understanding the preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of consumersin a market-based economy, and it aims to understand the effects and comparative success of marketingcampaigns. The field of consumer marketing research as a statistical science was pioneered byArthur Nielsenwith the foundingof theACNielsenCompany in 1923.
[2]
 Thus, marketing research may also be described as the systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis, anddissemination of information for the purpose of assisting management in decision making related to the identification andsolution of problems and opportunities inmarketing.
[3] 
Stages of marketing research process
Step 1: Problem Definition
 The first step in any marketing research project is to define the problem. In defining the problem, the researcher should take intoaccount the purpose of the study, the relevant background information, what information is needed, and how it will be used indecision making. Problem definition involves discussion with the decision makers, interviews with industry experts, analysis of secondary data, and, perhaps, some qualitative research, such as focus groups. Once the problem has been precisely defined, theresearch can be designed and conducted properly.Step 2: Development of an Approach to the ProblemDevelopment of an approach to the problem includes formulating an objective or theoretical framework, analytical models,research questions, hypotheses, and identifying characteristics or factors that can influence the research design. This process isguided by discussions with management and industry experts, case studies and simulations, analysis of secondary data,qualitative research and pragmatic considerations.
Step 3: Research Design Formulation
 A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project. It details the procedures necessaryfor obtaining the required information, and its purpose is to design a study that will test the hypotheses of interest, determine possible answers to the research questions, and provide the information needed for decision making. Conducting exploratoryresearch, precisely defining the variables, and designing appropriate scales to measure them are also a part of the researchdesign. The issue of how the data should be obtained from the respondents (for example, by conducting a survey or anexperiment) must be addressed. It is also necessary to design a questionnaire and a sampling plan to select respondents for thestudy.More formally, formulating the research design involves the following steps :
 
1.
 
Secondary data analysis2.
 
Qualitative research3.
 
Methods of collecting quantitative data (survey, observation, and experimentation)4.
 
Definition of the information needed5.
 
Measurement and scaling procedures6.
 
Questionnaire design7.
 
Sampling process and sample size8.
 
Plan of data analysis
Step 4: Field Work or Data
C
ollection
 Data collection involves a field force or staff that operates either in the field, as in the case of personal interviewing (in-home,mall intercept, or computer-assisted personal interviewing), from an office by telephone (telephone or computer-assistedtelephone interviewing), or through mail (traditional mail and mail panel surveys with prerecruited households). Proper selection, training, supervision, and evaluation of the field force helps minimize data-collection errors.
Step 5: Data Preparation and Analysis
 Data preparation includes the editing, coding, transcription, and verification of data. Each questionnaire or observation form isinspected, or edited, and, if necessary, corrected. Number or letter codes are assigned to represent each response to each questionin the questionnaire. The data from the questionnaires are transcribed or key-punched on to magnetic tape, or disks or inputdirectly into the computer. Verification ensures that the data from the original questionnaires have been accurately transcribed,while data analysis, guided by the plan of data analysis, gives meaning to the data that have been collected. Univariatetechniques are used for analyzing data when there is a single measurement of each element or unit in the sample, or, if there areseveral measurements of each element, each RCH variable is analyzed in isolation. On the other hand, multivariate techniquesare used for analyzing data when there are two or more measurements on each element and the variables are analyzedsimultaneously.
Step 6: Report Preparation and Presentation
 The entire project should be documented in a written report which addresses the specific research questions identified, describesthe approach, the research design, data collection, and data analysis procedures adopted, and presents the results and the major findings. The findings should be presented in a comprehensible format so that they can be readily used in the decision making process. In addition, an oral presentation should be made to management using tables, figures, and graphs to enhance clarity andimpact.For these reasons, interviews with experts are more useful in conducting marketing research for industrial firms and for productsof a technical nature, where it is relatively easy to identify and approach the experts. This method is also helpful in situationswhere little information is available from other sources, as in the case of radically new products.
Secondary data analysis
 Secondary data are data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand. Primary data, on the other hand, areoriginated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem. Secondary data include informationmade available by business and government sources, commercial marketing research firms, and computerized databases.Secondary data are an economical and quick source of background information. Analysis of available secondary data is anessential step in the problem definition process: primary data should not be collected until the available secondary data have been fully analyzed.
Qualitative research
 Information, industry experts, and secondary data may not be sufficient to define the research problem. Sometimes qualitativeresearch must be undertaken to gain a qualitative understanding of the problem and its underlying factors. Qualitative research isunstructured, exploratory in nature, based on small samples, and may utilize popular qualitative techniques such as focus groups(group interviews), word association (asking respondents to indicate their first responses to stimulus words), and depthinterviews (one-on-one interviews which probe the respondents' thoughts in detail). Other exploratory research techniques, suchas pilot surveys with small samples of respondents, may also be undertaken.Market Research is a systematic, objective collection and analysis of data about a particular target market, competition, and/or environment. It always incorporates some form of data collection whether it be secondary research (often referred to as desk 
 
research) or primary research which is collected direct from a respondent.The purpose of any market research project is to achieve an increased understanding of the subject matter. With marketsthroughout the world becoming increasingly more competitive, market research is now on the agenda of many organisations,whether they be large or small.DEMAND FOR MORE ''MARKET INTELLIGENCE''.-to know more about the market.-to gain better understanding of the market.-to better position the products/services.-to use the limited resources, more effectively.THE MUCH EDUCATED MARKETERS, ARE NOWFULLY AWARE OF THE RANGEOF VITAL INFORMATION NEEDED FOR EFFECTIVE MARKETING.Business IntelligenceBusiness Performance ManagementBusiness rulesData Mining ancePredictive analyticsPurchase order requestEnterprise ArchitectureInformation technology managementKnowledge BaseOnline analytical processingETC ETCThe major EXPECTATIONS of MARKETING RESEARCH are to:reach an understanding of the relevant processes on the basis of the available historic information. This element forms the basisfor the development of models, required for forecasting and simulation. provide information on the current situation, especially for early warning purposes, for instance related to issues impacting on business, resources or business status.forecast changes and impacts, either natural or man-made, as an element in vulnerability assessments.forecast the consequences of policy decisions and measures before they are implemented in reality. This implies evaluatingoptions for several given scenarios based on the possible results and predicted consequences, and selecting the most acceptablealternative.THE MARKET RESEARCH PROVIDESAd Tracking ± periodic or continuous in-market research to monitor a brand¶s performance using measures such as brandawareness, brand preference, and product usage.Advertising Research ± used to predict copy testing or track the efficacy of advertisements for any medium, measured by thead¶s ability to get attention, communicate the message, build the brand¶s image, and motivate the consumer to purchase the product or service.Brand equity research - how favorably do consumers view the brand?Brand name testing - what do consumers feel about the names of the products?Commercial eye tracking research - examine advertisements, package designs, websites, etc by analyzing visual behavior of theconsumer Concept testing - to test the acceptance of a concept by target consumersCoolhunting - to make observations and predictions in changes of new or existing cultural trends in areas such as fashion, music,films, television, youth culture and lifestyleconsumer decision process research - to determine what motivates people to buy and what decision-making process they useCopy testing ± predicts in-market performance of an ad before it airs by analyzing audience levels of attention, brand linkage,motivation, entertainment, and communication, as well as breaking down the ad¶s flow of attention and flow of emotion. Customer satisfaction studies - exit interviews or surveys that determine a customer's level of satisfaction with the quality of the transactionDemand estimation - to determine the approximate level of demand for the productDistribution channel audits - to assess distributors¶ and retailers¶ attitudes toward a product, brand, or company Internet strategic intelligence - searching for customer opinions in the Internet: chats, forums, web pages, blogs... where peopleexpress freely about their experiences with products, becoming strong "opinion formers"Marketing effectiveness and analytics - Building models and measuring results to determine the effectiveness of individual

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