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Obesity

Obesity

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: nanaadu on Oct 22, 2010
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05/23/2012

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Obesity
Obesity
Classification and external resources
 Silhouettes and waist circumferences representing normal,overweight, and obese
ICD-10
 
E66.
ICD-9
 
278
OM
I
M
601665
D
iseases
DB
9099
MedlinePlus
 
003101
eMedicine
 
med/1653
 
MeSH
C23.888.144.699.500
Obesity
is amedical conditionin which excess body fathas accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reducedlife expectancyand/or increased health problems.
[1][2]
 Body mass index(BMI), a measurement which comparesweightand height, defines people asoverweight (pre-obese)when their BMI is between 25 kg/m
2
and 30 kg/m
2
, andobese when it is greater than 30 kg/m
2
.
[3]
 Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularlyheart disease,type 2 diabetes,  breathing difficulties during sleep, certain types of cancer , andosteoarthritis.
[2]
Obesity is mostcommonly caused by a combination of excessivedietary calories, lack of physical activity, andgenetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily bygenes,endocrinedisorders, medicationsor  psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater 
 
energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain anincreased body mass.
[4][5]
 The primary treatment for obesity isdietingand physical exercise. To supplement this, or in case of failure,anti-obesity drugsmay be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. In severecases,surgeryis performed or an intragastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and/or  bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.
[6][7]
 Obesity is a leading preventable cause of deathworldwide, with increasing prevalencein adults andchildren, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public healthproblems of the 21st century.
[8]
Obesity isstigmatizedin much of the modern world (particularly in theWestern world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times inhistory, and still is in some parts of the world.
[2][9]
 
Main article:Classification of obesity 
Obesity is amedical conditionin which excess body fathas accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health.
[1]
It is defined by body mass index (BMI)and further evaluatedin terms of fat distribution via thewaist±hip ratioand total cardiovascular risk factors.
[10][11]
BMIis closely related to both percentage body fatand total body fat.
[12]
 
A "super obese" male with a BMI of 47 kg/m
2
: weight 146 kg (322 lb), height 177 cm (5 ft 10 in)
In children, a healthy weight varies with age and sex. Obesity in children and adolescents isdefined not as an absolute number, but in relation to a historical normal group, such that obesityis a BMI greater than the 95th percentile.
[13]
The reference data on which these percentiles are based are from 1963 to 1994, and thus have not been affected by the recent increases inweight.
[14]
 
BMI
 
Classification
 
<
18.5
 
underweight
 
18.524.9
 
normal weight
 
25.029.9
 
overweight
 
 
30.034.9
 
class I obesity
 
35.039.9
 
class II obesity
 
 40.0
 
class III obesity
BMI is calculated by dividing the subject's mass by the square of his or her height, typicallyexpressed either inmetricor US "customary"units:
Metric:
BMI
=
kilograms
/
meters
2
 US customary andimperial:
BMI
=
lb
* 703 /
in
2
 
where
lb
is the subject's weight in poundsand
in
is the subject's height ininches.The most commonly used definitions, established by theWorld Health Organization(WHO) in1997 and published in 2000, provide the values listed in the table at right.
[3]
 Some modifications to the WHO definitions have been made by particular bodies. The surgicalliterature breaks down "class III" obesity into further categories whose exact values are stilldisputed.
[15]
 
y
 
Any BMI  35 or 40 is
severe obesity 
 
y
 
A BMI of  35 or 4044.9 or 49.9 is
morbid obesity 
 
y
 
A BMI of  45 or 50 is
super obese
 
A
s
A
sian populations develop negative health consequences at a lower BMI than Caucasians,some nations have redefined obesity; the Japanese have defined obesity as any BMI greater than25
[16]
whileChinauses a BMI of greater than 28.
[17]
 
Effects on health
Excessive bodyweightis associated with variousdiseases, particularlycardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2,obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer , andosteoarthritis.
[2]
 
A
sa result, obesity has been found to reducelife expectancy.
[2]
 

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