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Ecosystems - EVS Project

Ecosystems - EVS Project

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Published by: Pranav on Oct 23, 2010
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11/18/2014

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Ecosystems
Pranav H. Vashi1
 Introduction:
The High Peaks Wilderness Area in the Adirondack Park is an example of a diverse ecosystem. 
An ecosystem can be defined as 'a structural and functional unit of biosphere or segment of nature consisting of community of living beings and the physicalenvironment, both interacting and exchanging materials between them'.Ecosystems are dynamic entities composed of the biological community and theabiotic environment. An ecosystem's abiotic and biotic composition and structure isdetermined by the state of a number of interrelated environmental factors. Changes inany of these factors will result in dynamic changes to the nature of these systems. For example, a fire in the temperate deciduous forest completely changes the structure of that system. There are no longer any large trees, most of the mosses, herbs, and shrubsthat occupy the forest floor are gone, and the nutrients that were stored in the biomassare quickly released into the soil, atmosphere and hydrologic system. After a shorttime of recovery, the community that was once large mature trees now becomes acommunity of grasses, herbaceous species, and tree seedlings.
 
 
Ecosystems
Pranav H. Vashi2
E
cology deals with several levels of biological organization, including organisms,populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes and the biosphere.
 
 
 
Ec
os
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 3
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il
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l
of organ
iz
a
ti
on
i
n Ecosys
t
em
i
s
t
ha
t
of 
t
he organ
i
sm. Anorgan
i
sm refers
t
o a par 
ti
cu
l
ar organ
i
sm
i
n an ecosys
t
em, say ca
t
, dog e
t
c. A popu
l
a
ti
on
i
nc
l
udes a
ll
 
t
he members of 
t
he same organ
i
sm
t
ha
t
 
li
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i
n one p
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ace a
t
one
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me. A
ll
 
t
he d
i
fferen
t
popu
l
a
ti
ons
t
ha
t
 
li
ve
i
n a par 
ti
cu
l
ar area make up a commun
it
y.The phys
i
ca
l
 
l
oca
ti
on of a
C
ommun
it
y
i
s ca
ll
ed
t
he hab
it
a
t
. Ecosys
t
em
i
s
i
n
t
urn a
l
eve
l
of organ
iz
a
ti
on and has one h
i
gher 
l
eve
l
of organ
iz
a
ti
on ca
ll
ed b
i
osphere. The pho
t
ograph on
t
he nex
t
page der 
i
ved from a fore
i
gn eco
l
ogy book wou
l
d c
l
ear 
l
y
ill
us
t
ra
t
e
t
he var 
i
ous
l
eve
l
s of organ
iz
a
ti
on.The d
i
vers
it
y of an ecosys
t
em
i
s a measure of 
t
he number of d
i
fferen
t
spec
i
es
t
here, and how common each spec
i
es
i
s. Ecosys
t
ems are very comp
l
ex. They cancon
t
a
i
n hundreds or even
t
housands of 
i
n
t
erac
ti
ng spec
i
es. Each organ
i
sm or spec
i
es
i
n
t
he commun
it
y has a ro
l
e or profess
i
on
i
n
t
ha
t
commun
it
y and
i
n eco
l
ogy
t
h
i
s
i
s
t
heorgan
i
sm¶s n
i
che.
Class
ifi
a
tif
 sys
tem
An ecosys
t
em can be c
l
ass
i
i
ed as be
l
owThere are fur 
t
her c
l
ass
i
i
ca
ti
ons
i
n
t
he above char 
t
, bu
t
for a beg
i
nner 
l
eve
l
,
it
 
i
senough
t
o concen
t
ra
t
e on
t
hese areas. A
l
so
t
he s
t
udy of ar 
ti
i
c
i
a
l
ecosys
t
em
i
s no
t
 
t
hescope of an env
i
ronmen
t
a
l
sc
i
en
ti
s
t
. The env
i
ronmen
t
a
li
s
t
s dea
l
w
it
h na
t
ura
l
crea
ti
onsand managemen
t
on
l
y. Moreover 
t
he sys
t
em
i
n ar 
ti
i
c
i
a
l
ecosys
t
em does no
t
offer much
t
o s
t
udy. Therefore we are more
i
n
t
eres
t
ed
i
n na
t
ura
l
ecosys
t
em and don¶
t
 cons
i
der ar 
ti
i
c
i
a
l
ecosys
t
em
ECOSYSTEMNATURAL ECOSYSTEM ARTIFICIAL ECOSYSTEMTERRESTRIALECOSYSTEM
ForestsGrasslandsDeserts
AQUATICECOSYSTEM
Fresh WatersMarine Waters

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