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Race, Ancestry

Race, Ancestry

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Published by: 3d3 on Oct 23, 2010
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Social Race vs. Biological Ancestry
y
 
Social race/Ethnicity
o
 
P
eer/self-defined based on
 
P
hysical appearance and genetic heritage
 
G
eographic origins
 
Cu
lt
u
ral practices/ ling
u
istics/ ethnic identity
y
 
Biological ancestry
o
 
D
efined on the basis of the preponderance of metric and non-metric skeletal traitswhich are distrib
u
ted along broad geographic-pop
u
lation lines
y
 
H
u
man
H
istory
o
 
H
omo sapien (appeared ~ 300 000 years ago)
o
 
O
u
t of Africa (migrated o
u
t ~ 100 000 years ago)
o
 
Asia (migrated o
u
t ~ 45,000)
o
 
E
u
rope (35,000)
o
 
America (15,000)
o
 
C
ol
u
mb
u
s (1492)
o
 
L
inae
u
s  1700s
 
Binomial classication system
 
G
eographic, phenotypic and behavioral descriptions
o
 
Bl
u
menbach  1800s
 
H
ead shape, skin color, hair form
y
 
System that is still In
u
se in some area
y
 
Sam
u
el Morton  1850s
y
 
C
ranial capacity to promote biological determinism
o
 
Scientifi Racism 
C
rania Americana
o
 
1930s-1940s Reconciled
D
arwinian evol
u
tiokn with Mendelian genetics
 
Begin to realize that pop
u
lations cannot be partitions into discrete races
o
 
P
roblems with the Race concept
 
D
oes not reflect the fl
u
id interbreeding patterns (gene flow) of pop
u
lations
 
H
u
mans rarely mate within a single gro
u
p for long
 
F
ew moderately distinct breeding pop
u
lations
y
 
Cu
lt
u
ral and geographic barriers to inter-gro
u
p mating are breakingdown over time.
o
 
C
linal variation
 
Broadly-dispersed species will vary in genotypic and phenotypic charactersgrad
u
ally
 
P
atterns may be driven by selection or an artifact of genetic drift, and aremodified by gene flow
D
IS
C
O
R
D
ANT VARIATI
O
N There are no races, only clines 
L
ivingstone (1992)
 
y
 
W
hy determine Race?
o
 
Race has long been debated, both as a term and as a part of physical anthropology
o
 
The average person perceives that variability does exist and at some level they classifybased on that perception (
G
ill, 1990)
y
 
F
orensic anthropologists are Applied anthropologists
o
 
Interact with lay persons
o
 
W
ithin a social context
o
 
P
rovide a service
 
H
elp establish personal identity
 
Narrow down the n
u
mber of ante-mortem records searched
y
 
Terms (
H
efner)
o
 
Ancestry
 
A lineage, or those that compose the line of nat
u
ral descent
o
 
Race
 
A geographically and c
u
lt
u
rally determined collection of individ
u
als who share acommon gene pool and are similar in many characteristics.
o
 
Ethnic gro
u
ps
 
A gro
u
p of with certain recent who share similar lang
u
age + c
u
lt
u
re
y
 
Ancestry
o
 
Variation in physical feat
u
res allows an estimate of a persons ancestry with somedegree of specificity.
o
 
K
nowledge of the freq
u
encies and distrib
u
tions of phenotypic feat
u
res allows
u
s todecide if the immediate ancestors of 
u
nknown skeletal remains come from a broadgeographic area
y
 
D
etermination of Ancestry
o
 
Req
u
ires normative data for the pop
u
lation
o
 
C
an incl
u
de both metrics and non-metrics
o
 
Is the most diffic
u
lt biological parameter
y
 
D
ifferences between pop
u
lations
o
 
U
s
u
ally less than within pop
u
lations
 
G
enetic variation is greater within a pop
u
lation
o
 
May be size / shape related
o
 
May relate to freq
u
encies of specific traits
y
 
Ancestry in
F
A
o
 
Ancestryimplies broad, geographically-defined biological pop
u
lations
 
E
u
rope, Africa, Asia, the Americans,
O
ceania, etc.
o
 
To be of val
u
e, the ancestry categories
u
sed m
u
st reflect every
u
se of o
u
r society
 
If we determine that an individ
u
als ancestry is E
u
ropean, it wo
u
ld be inferredthat the individ
u
al wo
u
ld have been racially classified by others as white.
o
 
MI
DF
A
C
E is diagnostic
y
 
Non-metrics
 
o
 
C
onsiders the preponderance of data
o
 
Examines freq
u
encies in a given pop
u
lation
o
 
Seeks to
u
nderstand the f 
u
nction of traits
y
 
Advantages of non-metrics
o
 
No expensive, delicate eq
u
ipment
o
 
Easy and q
u
ick to perform
o
 
C
an be performed on fragmented remains
o
 
Sex does not need to be known
y
 
D
isadvantages of non-metrics
o
 
Inter-observer error
o
 
Not clearly defined
 
P
ossible intra-observer error
o
 
R
u
dimentary statistics
 
Simple trait freq
u
encies
y
 
Non-metric traits
o
 
Inter-orbital breadth
o
 
O
rbit shape
o
 
Nasal apert
u
re
o
 
Nasal bone shape
o
 
Midface prognathism
o
 
Z
ygomatics
y
 
E
u
ropean
o
 
Narrow nasal apert
u
re
o
 
Nasal still present
o
 
Minimal inter-orbit bones
y
 
Asia
o
 
Nasal apert
u
re (moderate widith)
o
 
C
irc
u
lar orbits
o
 
Tented nasal bones
o
 
Intermediate interobital breadth
o
 
Edge to edge bite
o
 
F
laring cheeks
y
 
African
o
 
W
ide nasal pert
u
re
o
 
Rectang
u
lar orbits
o
 
G
reat interporbital breadth
o
 
u
onset-h
u
t nasal bones
o
 
P
rognathic fact
o
 
Tall sk
u
ll
y
 
P
ost-cranial

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