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AC91-32B (Safety around Helicopters)

AC91-32B (Safety around Helicopters)



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Published by Edward Rehr

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Published by: Edward Rehr on Jul 19, 2008
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U.S. epaftmentof Tfansportationbdeml AviationAdtlmismtim
Subject: SAFETY IN AND AROUND Date: 6/2/97AC No: 9%32BHELICOPTERS Initiated By: AFS-820 Change:1. PURPOSE. This Advisory Circular (AC) provides afetyguidelinesor persons ssociated ith helicopteroperations nd suggests ays to avoid hazardsand reduce he risk of accidents. The information n this ACpertainsprimarily to helicopteroperations onducted nder he provisionsof Title 14 of the Codeof Federal Regulations14 CFR) part 91; however, he safetyconsiderationsiscussedmay be applicable o all helicopter operations.2; CANCELLATION. AC 91-324, Safety n andAroundHelicopters, ated /21/79, s canceled.3. RELATED CFR PARTS. Partsof the regulations elated o the information n this AC are 14CFRparts91,133,135,137, and 175.4. RELATED READING MATERIAL. The informationcontainedn this AC complementshe documents listedbelow. Currenteditionsof the following AC’s may be obtained t no costby sending written request o U. S. Department f Transportation, ubsequent istribution Center,A&more East BusinessCenter,3341 Q 75thAvenue, andover,MD 20785:a. AC 90-87, HelicopterDynamicRollover.b. AC 90-95, Unanticipated ight Yaw in Helicopters.c. AC91-42, Hazards f RotatingPropeller ndHelicopterRotorBlades. d. AC 133-1, RotorcraftExternal-Load perationsn Accordance ith FAR Part 133e. AC 137-1, AgriculturalAircraft Operations5. BACKGROUND. Aviation personnel nd passengers ave been injured, some fatally, in helicopteraccidentswhich would not have occurredhad passengers eenproperly briefed and basic safety practices observed.Someaccidentsnvolvepassengers ho, unawareof the danger,walk toward the aircraft’s ailrotor afterdeplaning.Someaccidentsesult rom passengerseatedn the front of the aircraft nadvertently itting the aircraftcontrols. In othercases, ilots eave he aircraftcontrolswhile theengines nd otorsare urning n order to assist passengers r coordinate he aircraft loading. To be conductedsafely, any ground operationaccomplished ith engines nd otors urning equiresmeticulous bservation f recognizedafetyguidelines nd strict enforcement f passengerontrolmures by trained rewmembers.
AC 91-32B 6/2/976. FLIGHTCREW AND GROUND CREW PERSONNEL. Conscientious, ell-trained ersonnel re hekey to a safe operationand a major factor in the reductionof accidents. Standardizednitial and recurrent training s essential. Aviation personnel houldapply the basic safetyguidelines rovided n this AC, observeproceduresetailed n the appropriate anual,andparticipaten all available rainingprograms. n addition o a formal trainingprogram adherenceo a company perationsmanualand heuseof standardi& handsignals s well as adios n a high-noise nvironment re mportantelements f a safeoperation..a. Manuz~L A part 135 certificateholder s required o prepareand keepcurrent a manual stating he operator’s olicies and procedures.The manual must be usedby the certificateholder’s light, ground,and maintenanceersonnel.Although t is not required y part 91, it is goodoperating ractice or all operatorso develop n operationsmanualdefining ompany roceduresnd esponsibilities. b. Training. Initial and recurrentraining on a company’s perating rocedures houldbe provided o allemployees.(1) Initial training eaches newemployeehe company’s perating oliciesandprocedures ndhelps he employee nderstandis/her esponsibilities nd heguidelinesor safeoperating ractices. (2) Recurrent raining efreshes n employee’s emoryon companyoperating oliciesand ensureshat eachperson s adequatelyrainedandcurrentlyproficient n companyequipment nd procedures. n addition,recurrent raining shouldencourage ll employeeso continue sing safe operating ractices n the workplace.Companiesmay derive additionalbenefits,such as reduced nsurance ates, by providing formal recurrent training or all employees.C. Hand Signals. Because f thehighnoise actorassociated ith helicopters,t may be mpossible o hear verbalcommunications nd s, therefore, xtremely mportant o usestandardizedandsignals. Commonly-used hand ignalsareshown n appendix .7. PILOTS. Under heprovisions f 5 91.3(a), hepilot-in-commandPIG)of an aircraft s directly esponsible for, and is the final authorityas to, the operation f that aircraft; however, eamworkcan help ensurea safe operation.a. Rotorcraft Flight Manual. In accordance ith 5 91.9,a pilot operating civil aircraft (rotorcraft)mustcomply with theoperatingimitationsspecifiedn theapproved otorcraftPlightManual. b. Cockpit Check ProcedurdChecklist. A pilot shoulduse a cockpit check procedure r checklistappropriateo the aircraft and operation. Use of a check procedure/checkliststablishes ow a specific obfunction s to beaccomplished ndhelps rewmembersevelop afety wareness. c. QuickTumaround.Helicopterpilots may use a quick turnaround peration o avoid delaysat airportterminalsandminim& stop/start yclesof theengine.During thequick turnaround rocedure, ilots sometimes leave hecockpitwhile theengineand otorsare urning. If possible, hepilot should emainat the light controls wheneverheengines runningand otorsare urning;however,f it is necessaryor thepilot to leave hecontrols of a runningmachine, hepilot should bservehe ollowing safetyprecautions: (1) Ensure hatwind conditions ill allow suchan operationo beconducted afely. Par 6
612197AC 91032B(2) Ensure hat all controlsare securedn accordance ith the aircraft flight manualand he company operationsmanual.(3) Reduce otorand/orenginepm to ground dle or minimum recommendedettings.(4) Ensure hat all passengersrecloselysupervisedy appropriatelyrained rewmembers. (5) Ensure hatno unauthorixdperson(s) pproachheaircraftunless roperlyescorted. 8. CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS. The type andnumberof crewmembers ther han pilotsvaries, ependingn the ypeof helicopter peration.a. Ground Crew Personnel. Ground rewpersonnel hould bservehe ollowing safetypractices: (1) Beforea helicopterakeoffor landing, ersonnel hould nsure hat thehelipador areaof operations is clearof all people, argo, aggage, r anythinghat might beblown around y the orceof thedowndraft. (Seefigure 1.)FIGURE 1. CLEAR HELIPAD/AREA OF OPERATIONS(2) To avoid contactwith the main rotor blade, ong piecesof equipment r tools shouldbe carried horizontallyat or below waist evel.Equipmentor tools of this type shouldneverbe carrieduprightand/orover theshoulder. See igure 2.)FIGURE 2. CARRYINGTOOLS/EQUIPMENTPar7Page3

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