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Bourdieu 1973 Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction

Bourdieu 1973 Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction

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18
CULTURAL
REPRODUCTION
AND
SOCIAL
REPRODUCTION
PierreBourdieu
•••
T
hespecificrole
of
thesociology
of
education
is
assumedonce
it
hasestablished
i[Se1f
as
thescience
of
therelationsbetweenculturalreproductionandsocialreproduction.Thisoccurswhen
it
endeavours
to
determinethecontributionmade
by
theeducationalsystem
to
thereproduction
of
the
Structure
of
powerrelationships
and
symbolicrelationshipsbetweenclasses,
by
con
tributing
to
thereproduction
of
thestructure
of
thedistribution
of
cultural
capitalamongtheseclasses.
The
science
of
thereproduction
of
Strucrures,
un
derstood
as
asystem
of
objectiverelationswhichimparttheirrelational
propertiestoindividualswhomtheypreexist
and
survive,hasnothingincommon
with
theanalyticalrecording
of
relationsexisting
within
agivenpopulation.
be
itaquestion
of
therelationsbetweentheacademic
SUccess
of
childrenandrhesocialposition
of
theirfamilyor
of
therelationsbetweenrhe
Pierre
Bourdieu,"CulturalReproducrionandSocialReproduction,"in
Know/edge,
Educlltion,
ilnd
Cu/-
film/
Ch/mge,
editedbyRich;lrdBrown,pp.71-8'1.Copyrighr1973
by
Taviswck.
We
haveomitredthe
tables
andfiguresappearing
in
theappendix
of
theoriginal
re,XL
257
 
positionsfilled
by
children
andtheir
parents.
The
substantialist
mode
of
thought
whichstopsshortardirectlyaccessibleelements,that
is
tosayindividuals,claimsacertainfidelitytorealitybydisregardingthesrructure
of
relationswhencetheseelementsderive
all
theirsociologicallyrelevantdeterminacions,
andthusfindsitselfhaving
to
analyseintra-orinter-generationalmobility
processestothedetriment
of
thestudy
of
mechanisms
which
tend
to
ensurethe
reproduction
of
thestructure
of
relationsbetweenclasses;it
is
unawarethattheconttolledmobility
of
alimitedcategory
of
individuals,carefullyselectedandmodified
by
and
furindividualascent,
is
not
incompatiblewiththepermanence
of
structures,andthatit
is
evencapable
of
contributing
to
socialstability
in
theonlywayconceivableinsocietiesbased
upon
democraticideals
and
therebymayhelptoperpetuatethestructure
of
classrelations.
Any
break
with
substantialiseatomism,even
if
itdoes
normean
going
as
far
as
certainstructuralistsandseeingagents
as
thesimple"supports"
of
structuresinvestedwiththemysteriouspower
of
determiningotherstructures,impliestaking
as
ourthemetheprocess
of
education.Thismeansthatourob
jectbecomesthe
production
of
thehabitus,tbatsysrem
of
dispositionswhich
acts
as
amediationbetweenstructuresandpracticeimorespecifically,itbecomesnecessary
(Q
studythe
laws
thatdeterminethetendency
of
structures
to
reproducethemselvesbyproducingagentsendowedwiththesystem
of
predispositionswhich
is
capable
of
engenderingpracticesadaptedtothestructuresandtherebycontributing
to
thereproduction
of
thestructures.
If
it
is
conceivedwithinatheoreticalframeworksuch
as
this,thesociology
of
educationalinstitutionsand,inparticular,
of
institutions
of
highereducation,
is
capable
of
malcingadecisivecontribution
to
thescience
of
thestructuraldynamics
of
class
relations,which
is
anoftenneglectedaspect
of
thesociology
of
power.Indeed,
among
allthesolurions
put
forward
throughour
hisrory
ro
theproblem
of
thetransmission
of
powerandprivileges,theresurelydoesnotexistonethat
is
betteradapted
to
societieswhichtendtorefusethemostpatentforms
of
thehereditarytransmission
of
powerandprivileges,thanthatsolutionwhichtheeducationalsystemprovides
by
contributing
to
therepro
duction
of
thestructure
of
classrelations
and
byconcealing,
byan
apparendy
neutralattitude,thefactthatit
fills
thisfunction.
Bytraditionallydefiningtheeducationalsystem
as
thegroup
of
institu
tionalorroutinemechanismsbymeans
of
which
is
operatedwhatDurldleimcalls"theconservation
of
acultureinheritedfromthepast,"i.e.thetransmissionfromgeneration
to
generation
of
accumulatedinformation,classicaltheories
tend
todissociatethefunction
of
culturalreproductionproper
to
all
~ d u c a t i o n a l
systemsfromtheirfunction
of
socialreproduction.TrampOSIng,astheydo,therepresentation
of
culture
and
of
culture
t r ~ n s m ~ s s . i o n ,
~ o m m o n l y
acceptedbytheethnologists,tothecase
of
sac;etles
d I ~ I d e d
Into
clas.ses,thesetheoriesarebased
upon
theimplici
assumptionthat
thedIfferentpedagogicactions
which
arecarried
ou
w i t ~ i n
theframework
of
thesocialstructure,
that
is
to
say.
thosewhich
ar
carned
out
byfamiliesfromthedifferentsocialclasses
as
well
as
thatwhic
is
practisedbytheschool,worktogetherinaharmoniousway
to
transmi
aculturalheritage
which
is
considered
as
beingthe
undividedproperty
t
thewhole
society.
Infactthestatistics
of
theatre,concert,andabove
all,
museumarrendanc
( s i n c ~ ,
inthe
I.ast
case,theeffect
of
economicobstacles
is
moreor
less
nil)
at
suffiCientremmderthattheinheritance
of
culturalwealthwhichhasbeen
ac
cumulated
and
b e q u ~ a t h e d
by
previousgenerationsonly
really
belong
(althoughlr
IS
theoretically
offeredroeveryone)
ro
thoseendowed
withth
means
of
appropriatingirforthemselves.Inview
of
thefactthattheapprehenslOn
a n d p o s s ~ s s l O n
of
culturalgoods
as
symbolicgoods(along
with
th
s y m ~ o l r c
sansfactlonswhIchaccompanyanappropriation
of
thiskind)
ar,
pOSSIble
~ n l y
forthose
whohold
thecode
making
itpossible
ro
decipbe
them
or,In
o t h e ~
words,
t h ~ t
theappropriation
of
symbolicgoodspresup
p ~ s e s
the
posseSSIOn
of
theInstruments
of
appropriation,
it
is
sufficient
t<
gIVe
free
play
to
thelaws
of
culturaltransmissionforculturalcapitaland
fo
thestructure
of
thedistribution
of
culturalcapitalbetweensocialclasses
[(
~ e
therebyreproduced.
By
this
is
meantthestructure
of
thedistribution
0
Instrumentsfortheappropriation
of
symbolicwealthsociallydesignated
a:
worthy
of
beingsought
and
possessed.Inorder
to
bepersuaded
of
the
truth
of
this,
it
must
firstbeseen
that
th,
s t r u ~ t u r e
of
thedistribution
of
classesorsections("fractions")
of
aclass
ac.
c ~ r d l O g
to
[heextenttowhichtheyareconsumers
of
culturecorresponds
WIth
afewslightdifferencessuch
as
thefact
that
heads
of
industryanccommerceoccupyalowerpositionthandohigherofficestaff,profession.als.
and
even
intermediate
officestaff,
to
the
structure
of
distributior
accotding
ro
the
hietarchy
of
economic
capital
andpower
(seeTableI8.
I)
.
The
~ ~ f f e r e n t
classesorsections
of
a
class
areorganizedaroundthree
ma-
Jorposltlons:thelowerposition,occupiedbytheagriculturalprofessionsworkers,andsmalltradespeople,whichare,infact,categoriesexcludedfron:participationin"high"culture;theintermediateposition
l
occupied
on
the
onehand
by
the
heads
and
employees
of
industryand
businessand,
onth,
258
PIERRE
BOURDIEU
CULTURALAND
SOCIAL
REPRODUCTION
25!
 
AnnualbudgetcoefficientsAgricultumlworkersFarmersWorkersSmalltradespeopleH11ite-collarworkersIntermediateoffice
staff
Heads
of
industl)1andcommerceProfessionals
and
higheroffice
staff
1956
of
20,000
households-tables
of
householdconsumptionby
Durablegoods0.60.50.8Otherexpenditure
1.61.92.2Householdconsumption,
INSEE-CREDOC
surveycarried
out
in
socia-professionalcategories.
Table
18.1ExpenditureonCulture
0.8
2.2
lA
3.2
2.8
3.61.53.33.66.2
Purchasers
Dj'
books
during
lastmonth
l
Farmers
14
Workers
22
Heads
of
industry
31
&
commerce
White-collar
39
workers,intermedia1eoffice
staff
Professionals"50higherofficestaff
Readers
of
Regulartheatre,concert,Havebeen
to
thetheatrebooks'!cinemaattendanceinatleastoncein
year
1964
4
theParisianregion
3
(all
of
France)
Farmers,
15.5
Fanners
18
agriculturalworkersWorkers
33
Workers
21
8
70
17
White-collar
53.5
Tradespeople
46
14
71
22
workers
&
craftsmenCraftsmen
&
51.5
White-collar
47
22
80
32
tradespeople,workers,intennediateintennediateoffice
staff
office
staff
Heads
of
industry,
72
Heads
of
industry,
6533
81
63
professionals,professionals,higherofficehigheroffice
staff
staff
I
Syndicatnationaldesediteurs(NationalUnionofPubJishers),"Laclienteledulivre,"July1967.surveycarriedoutbytheIFOP.
2
Syndicatnational
des
cditeurs,
"La
lectUre
et
le
livreenFrance,"]anuary-April19GO,surveycarried
out
bytheIFOP.
:>
Survey
of
theatreattendance
in
theParisianregioncarriedoutbytheIFOP.1964.
-I
Survey
of
theatreattendance,SOFRES,June1964.
Table18.2CulturalActivities
of
DifferentOccupationalCategories

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