highest good - Liberation (Nishreyasa). These systems are dualistic in their conception of God(Supreme Self), Jiva (individual self), and the universe. These units have their own separate objectivereality, it is said. God is seen as the Supreme Ruler of this universe, of which Jiva is a part. Existenceof God is accepted as a ruler, lawgiver, controller, and governor that allows maintenance of order inthe universe. According to Nyaya theory the world is more or less as we perceive it. However, thedefects in the sense organs like improper or partial perception of something and the influence of fear,anticipation and other mental conditions lead to inappropriate and defective perception of the same. Nyaya regards that clear perception in general is a sound means of cognition, which discloses things tous as they really are.
As can be seen, this all is very complicated to understand and difficult write. I have written on thebasis of my reading of the six systems from the book: 'The Spiritual Heritage of India' by Swami Prabhavananda.
Samkhya forms the philosophical basis for Yoga of Patanjali. Therefore, both Yoga and Samkhya can be grouped together, Yoga forming the practical methodology to achieve the goal. Samkhya providesrational analysis of the Truth. Its reasoning is very logical, neat, and scientific that it does not find itnecessary to posit the concept of God to comprehend the Truth and freedom form suffering. Basically,Samkhya is a system based on duality of Purusha and Prakriti. While Purusha is posited as the onlysentient being, ever existent, and immaterial, Prakriti is said to be the material basis of this universe,composed of three basic elements, Gunas, namely Tamas, Rajas, and Sattva.Permutations and combinations of these gunas lead to formation of multifarious world. Not only allmaterial objects fall under this category, but also mind and its functions of language and thoughts arecomposed of matter in the final analysis. Therefore, it is necessary to go beyond -transcend - the mindto reach immaterial sentient reality. This is the goal and endeavor of all human actions and activities,and Yoga Sutra of Patanjali explains and guides step by step us to this realization. First, by controllingthe mind stuff - chitta - the sadhaka tries to minimize modifications of mind. And a stage is reachedwhen single pointed mind can be transcended and the state of samadhi reached.