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Published by Subsea_Team

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Published by: Subsea_Team on Oct 24, 2010
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IntroductionRisers are conduits required to transfer materials from the seafloor to production and drilling facilities on the water surface, as well asfrom the facility to the seafloor. Subsea risers are a kind of pipeline developed specifically for this type of vertical transportation. Whetherserving as production or delivery vehicles, risers are the connection between the subsea field developments and the production anddrilling facilities.Although they may be similar to subsea pipelines, risers are different because,1. They are subject to environmental loading along the water column,2. Subject to platform deflections,3. And they·re typically subject to more stringent acceptance criteria due to their location and criticality.2.Types of RisersThere are a number of different risers, which include
attached risers, pull tube risers, steel catenary risers, top-tensioned risers, riser towers and flexible risers, as well as drilling risers.
 Attached Risers ²Used on Fixed Platforms, Concrete gravity Structures & Compliant Towers.
Steel Catenary Risers ²Connect Seafloor facilities to production facilities above as well as two floating production platforms.
Top Tensioned Risers ²Completely vertical systems that terminate directly below the facility.
Flexible & Hybrid Risers ²Ideal for floating facilities as vertical & horizontal movement take place.
Single Line Offset Risers ²Relatively new, consists of a vertical steel riser section connected by a jumper to the production vessel.
Drilling Risers²Connect the subsea BOP stack at the bottom to the rig at the top, and transport the drilling fluid to surface.
3.Riser SelectionBased on the terrain requirements, the production facility(FPSO) & the deep water depths in the Perth Canyon, the only optionis to use a
Flexible Riser.
Flexible Risers have the following characteristics,
 Applied to water depths up to 8000 ft, high pressure up to 680 bar & temperatures above 65°C.
 Ability to withstand large vessel motions in adverse weather conditions.
Has low relative bending to axial stiffness due to use of many layers of different materials for pipe wall fabrication which slip pasteach other under influence of external & internal loads.
Has advantages like prefabrication & storage on reels, which leads to reduced transport & installation costs.
. InstallationA Flexible riser·s body is built of a number of independent spiral laid steel and thermo-plastic layers and an outer carcass; this beneficialfeature gives it the ability to accommodate high curvature, allowing ease of installation and accommodation of dynamic motions. Theinstallation of the flexible risers in deepwater is limited by the collapse resistance of the pipe as it is installed empty to keep the riserweight within the laying vessel·s tensioning capacity. Their flexibility allows them to be spooled continuously on to a reelfor efficient andquick transportation and installation. The riser is then rolled out onto the sea floor and is wet stored, it is simply liftedfrom the seabed andconnected to the host vessel when it is brought on station.
Installation speeds can average 500m per hour.
They can be installed from a large number of reel lay vessels.
The riser will be laid in a J-lay fashion and will be configured to be in a Lazy wave or a Steep wave depending on the pipelinetermination assembly.
Essential devices such as Top Stiffeners and End Fittings will be installed to increase the stiffness of the riser and prevent over-bending of the riser beyond its allowable bend radius.5. Maintenance
Waves and vessel motions cause fatigue damage to the riser, therefore detailed fatigue analysis are periodicallycarried out.
The carcass and steel armour wires of the flexible riser are not very susceptible to corrosion but corrosionpreventative maintenance will be carried out when required.
Hydrocarbon carrying pipes are susceptible to the formation of wax or hydrate deposits therefore pigging will beperformed when required.
To prevent the build-up of gases in the annulus due to diffusion, a venting system is incorporated into the pipestructure to enable the annulus gases to be vented out to atmosphere through valves.
Systems like HIPPS and Integrity will be in place.

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