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07_part2a

07_part2a

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Published by kannarock

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: kannarock on Oct 25, 2010
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10/25/2010

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PART 2POWER AND PROPULSION CYCLES
 
2A-1
PART 2 – POWER AND PROPULSION CYCLES2A – Gas Power and Propulsion Cycles
[SB&VW - 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14]
In this section we analyze several gas cycles used in practical applications for propulsionand power generation, using the air standard cycle. The air standard cycle is an approximation tothe actual cycle behavior, and the term specifically refers to analysis using the followingassumptions:
Air is the working fluid (the presence of combustion products is neglected)
Combustion is represented by heat transfer from an external heat source
The cycle is ‘completed’ by heat transfer to the surroundings
All processes are internally reversible
Air is a perfect gas with constant specific heats
 2.A.1 The Internal combustion engine (Otto Cycle)
The different processes of an idealized Otto cycle (internal combustion engine) are shownin Figure 2A-1:
P
P
0
2
= V 
3
1
= V 
4
52341
Q
 H 
Q
 L
Adiabatic reversibleFigure 2A-1: Ideal Otto cycle
i.Intake stroke, gasoline vapor and air drawn into engine (5 -> 1)ii.Compression stroke,
 P, T 
increase (1->2)iii.Combustion (spark), short time, essentially constant volume (2->3)Model: heat absorbed from a series of reservoir at temperatures
2
to
3
iv.Power stroke: expansion (3 ->4)v.Valve exhaust: valve opens, gas escapesvi.(4->1) Model: rejection of heat to series of reservoirs at temperatures
4
to
1
vii.Exhaust stroke, piston pushes remaining combustion products out of chamber 1->5
 
2A-2
The actual cycle does not have these sharp transitions between the different processes and might beas sketched in Figure 2A-2SparkExhaustvalveopensNotisentropicExhaust valvecloses
P
P
0
Figure 2A-2: Sketch of actual Otto cycleEfficiency of an ideal Otto cycleThe starting point is the general expression for the thermal efficiency of a cycle:
η
= =+= +
workheat input
Q QQQQ
 H L H  L H 
1.The convention, as previously, is that heat exchange is positive if heat is flowing into the system orengine, so
Q
 L
is negative. The heat absorbed occurs during combustion when the spark occurs,roughly at constant volume. The heat absorbed can be related to the temperature change from state2 to state 3 as:
Q Q U C dT C T
 H vv
= = =
( )
=∫ =
( )
2323232332
0
The heat rejected is given by (for a perfect gas with constant specific heats)
Q Q U C T
 L v
= = =
( )
414114
Substituting the expressions for the heat absorbed and rejected in the expression for thermalefficiency yields
η
=
1
4132
T T

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