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@Electrical

@Electrical

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Published by: cyong7788 on Oct 25, 2010
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Table of contents
Section 1:
Power Systems Design– Introduction & Basic Principles
Section 2:
Electric Power Fundamentals
Section 3:
Load Planning– Basic Principles
Section 4:
System Voltage Considerations– Basic Principles
Section 5:
System Arrangements
Section 6:
Electrical System Grounding
Section 7:
Electrical System Protection
Section 8:
AC Motors, Motor Control & Motor Protection
Section 9:
Power Distribution Equipment Types
Section 10:
Emergency & Standby Power Systems
Section 11:
Power Quality Considerations
Section 12:
Arc Flash Hazard Considerations
Section 13:
Utility Interface Considerations
Section 14:
Electrical Energy Management
Section 15:
Project Coordination
 
11
Section 1:
Introduction and Basic Principles
Bill Brown, P.E., Square D Engineering Services
Introduction
With the increasing sophistication of modern power systems, it is easy to overlook the fact that the basic functionof a power distribution system has been the same for over 100 years – the safe, reliable distribution of power froma source to the connected loads. This basic function has not changed, although the complexity of the loadsthemselves, along with today's reliability and efficiency requirements, do make its realization more complex.This guide discusses the basic considerations which must be taken into account in order to obtain an optimalsystem design. Because the characteristics of each load, process, etc., served are unique, so too will each designbe unique in order to match the requirements imposed.
The purpose of this guide
This guide is intended to present the fundamentals of power system design for commercial and industrial powersystems. It is not designed as a substitute for educational background and experience in this area, nor is itdesigned to replace the multitude of detailed literature available about this subject. It does, however, bring intoone volume much material which has previously been available only by referencing a number of different sourceswith different formats and terminologies.This guide is also intended to present the state of the art with regard to power system design for commercial andindustrial facilities, in a consistent format along with traditionally-available material.For the new college graduate from a four-year electrical engineering curriculum working in the field of commercialand industrial power systems, this guide can serve as a starting point for learning the different aspects of theprofession. For the licensed design professional, this guide does present a number guidelines in a handy andconvenient reference.This guide is not intended to substitute for the services of a licensed design professional, but can be of aid whenworking with such professionals on commercial and industrial power system design.
Applications of electric power in industrial and commercial facilities
In both industrial and commercial environments, electric power is used for a wide number of applications. Thefollowing is a brief list of the most common uses for electric power. This list is taken in part from
[1]
, which providesan expanded treatment of this subject.
I
Illumination – Whether for providing light for an office environment or a manufacturing shop floor, illumination isone of the most important applications of electric power, and the oldest.
I
Environmental systems – Electric heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning are a large application for electricpower, and also an area in which electric power receives direct competition from other energy sources such asnatural gas.
I
Industrial processes – Industrial processes account for a large percentage of the global use of electric power.Typical process applications are listed as follows. These are not all-inclusive but do cover the majority ofprocess applications:
N
Pumping
N
Chemical Processes
N
Semiconductor Preparation Processes
N
Furnaces
[1]
Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, pp. 21-1 - 21-99.
 
2
N
Smelting
N
Rolling Mills
N
Pulp-and-Paper Preparation Processes
N
Welding
N
Refrigeration
N
Drying
N
Well Drilling
N
Materials Handling
N
Water Treatment Processes
I
Computers and Data Centers – With the advent of large computer networks the need also arisen for reliablepower for these.
I
Health Care – Reliable power has always been a requirement of the health care industry, but added to this isthe need for power quality due to the nature of the equipment used.
I
Safety Systems – Systems such as fire alarm and smoke detection systems, sprinkler systems and fire pumpsare vital to any commercial or industrial facility.
I
Communication Systems – Systems such as telephone and intrusion detection and monitoring arecritically important.
Basic design philosophy
The following basic considerations are fundamental to any power system design:
I
Basic Safety:The power system must be able to perform all of its basic functions, and withstand basicabnormal conditions, without damage to the system or to personnel.
I
Basic Functionality:The power system must be able to distribute power from the source to the connectedloads in a reliable manner under normal conditions.
I
Reasonable Cost:The power system cost to obtain basic safety and functionality should be reasonable.
I
Code Compliance:All applicable codes must be complied with.Above and beyond the basics are a multitude of considerations, some of which will apply to each particularsystem design:
I
Enhanced Safety:The ability to withstand extremely abnormal conditions with a minimum of risk to personnel.
I
Enhanced Reliability:The ability to maintain service continuity during abnormal system conditions.
I
Enhanced Maintainability:The system can be maintained with minimum interruption to service and withminimum personnel protective equipment.
I
Enhanced Flexibility:The ability to add future loads to the system, and with loads of a different nature thancurrently exist on the system.
I
Enhanced Space Economy:The power system takes up the smallest possible physical space.
I
Enhanced Simplicity:The power system is easy to understand and operate.
I
Reduced Cost:The power system costs, both first cost and operating cost, are low.
I
Enhanced Power Quality:The power system currents and voltages are sinusoidal, without large amounts ofharmonics present. System voltage magnitudes do not change appreciably.
I
Enhanced Transparency:The power system data at all levels is easily acquired and interpreted, and the powersystem is easily interfaced with other building systems. Enhanced control of the system is also possible.

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