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12 Powers

# 12 Powers

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ncert 8maths
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10/26/2010

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E
XPONENTS

AND
P
OWERS

193
12.1 Introduction
Do you know?
Mass of earth is 5,970,000,000,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 kg. We havealready learnt in earlier class how to write such large numbers moreconveniently using exponents, as, 5.97 × 10
24
24
as 10 raised to the power 24.We know2
5
=2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2and2
m
=2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × ... × 2 × 2 ... (
m
times)Let us now find what is 2
– 2
is equal to?
12.2 Powers with Negative Exponents
You know that,10
2
=10 × 10 = 10010
1
=10 =
10010
10
0
=1 =101010
– 1
=?Continuing the above pattern we get,10
– 1
=
110
Similarly10
– 2
=
2
111111010101010010
÷ = × = =
10
– 3
=
3
111111010010010100010
÷ = × = =
What is 10
– 10
equal to?

Exponents and Powers
CHAPTER
12
Exponent is anegative integer.As the exponent decreases by1, thevalue becomes one-tenth of theprevious value.

194
M
ATHEMATICS
TRY THESE TRY THESE
Now consider the following.3
3
=3 × 3 × 3 = 273
2
=3 × 3 = 9 =
273
3
1
=3 =
93
3° =1 =
33
So looking at the above pattern, we say3
– 1
=1
÷
3 =
13
3
– 2
=
133
÷
=133
×
=
2
13
3
– 3
=
2
133
÷
=
2
13
×
13
=
3
13
You can now find the value of 2
– 2
in a similar manner.We have,10
– 2
=
2
110
or10
2
=
2
110
10
– 3
=
3
110
or10
3
=
3
110
3
– 2
=
2
13
or3
2
=
2
13
etc.In general, we can say that for any non-zero integer
a
,
a
m
=
1
m
a
, where
m
is apositive integer.
a
m
is the multiplicative inverse of
a
m
.Find the multiplicative inverse of the following.(i)2
– 4
(ii)10
– 5
(iii)7
– 2
(iv)5
– 3
(v)10
– 100
We learnt how to write numbers like 1425 in expanded form using exponents as1 × 10
3
+ 4 × 10
2
+ 2 × 10
1
+ 5 × 10°.Let us see how to express 1425.36 in expanded form in a similar way.We have 1425.36 = 1 × 1000 + 4 × 100 + 2 × 10 + 5 × 1 +
3610100
+
= 1 × 10
3
+ 4 × 10
2
+ 2 × 10 + 5 × 1 + 3 × 10
– 1
+ 6 × 10
– 2
The previous number isdivided by the base 3.
Expand the following numbers using exponents.(i)1025.63(ii)1256.24910
– 1
=
110
,
10
– 2
=
2
1110010
=

E
XPONENTS

AND
P
OWERS

195
TRY THESE12.3 Laws of Exponents
We have learnt that for any non-zero integer
a
,
a
m
×
a
n

=
a
m

+
n
, where
m
and
n
are naturalnumbers. Does this law also hold if the exponents are negative? Let us explore.(i)We know that 2
– 3
=
3
12
and 2
– 2
=
2
12
Therefore,
32
22
×
=
323232
111122222
+
× = = =×
2
– 5
(ii)Take (–3)
– 4
× (–3)
–3
(–3)
– 4
×(–3)
–3
=
43
11(3)(3)
×
=
4343
11(3)(3)(3)
+
=×
= (–3)
–7
(iii)Now consider 5
–2
× 5
4
5
–2
× 5
4
=
444222
155555
× = =
= 5
(2)
(iv)Now consider (–5)
– 4
× (–5)
2
(–5)
– 4
× (–5)
2
=
224442
1(5)1(5)(5)(5)(5)(5)
× = =×
=
42
1(5)
= (–5)
– (2)
In general, we can say that for any non-zero integer
a
,
a
m

×
a
n

=
a
m
+
n
, where
m
and
n
are integers.Simplify and write in exponential form.(i)(2)
–3
× (–2)
– 4
(ii)
p
3
×
p
–10
(iii)3
2
× 3
–5
× 3
6
On the same lines you can verify the following laws of exponents, where
a
and
b
are nonzero integers and
m
,
n
are any integers.(i)
mmnn
aaa
=
(ii)(
a
m
)
n
=
a
mn
(iii)
a
m
×
b
m
= (
ab
)
m
(iv)
mmm
aabb
=
(v)
a
0
= 1Let us solve some examples using the above Laws of Exponents.
1
mm
aa
=
for any non-zero integer
a
.
In Class VII, you have learnt that for anynon-zero integer
a
,
mmnn
aaa
=
, where
m
and
n
are natural numbers and
m
>
n
.
These laws you have studiedin Class VII for positiveexponents only.–5 is the sum of two exponents – 3 and – 2(– 4) + (–3) = – 7(–2) + 4 = 2(– 4) + 2 = –2