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MODUL informatics semsester 1

MODUL informatics semsester 1

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Published by Gnr Funatic
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Published by: Gnr Funatic on Oct 26, 2010
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UNIT 1BUILDING A POWERFUL VOCABULARY
VOCABULARY TEST
Please do this test individually. Write down the answers on a piece of paper. This test is aimedto measure your vocabulary level. From this point, you can do several steps to enrich yourvocabulary through series of reading materials related to your vocabulary level.
 
READING SKILL 1: Strategies for Building a Powerful Vocabulary
To read well, you need a strong vocabulary.To build a strong vocabulary, you need to read well.
G
ood reading comprehension depends on understanding the words you are reading. The morewords you recognize and understand in a text, the better your comprehension will be.What do you do when you encounter (meet) a new word in your reading? _______ Ask another student about the meaning. _______ Try to guess the meaning of the word from the context. _______ Look up the definition in a dictionary. _______ Skip over the word and continue reading. _______ Analyze the word for clues to its meaning.Compare your answers with those of another student and discuss these questions: When do you use these strategies? What are the advantages or disadvantages of each?In fact, a good reader does all of the above at different times, depending on the word, thetext, and the reason for reading it. In this unit you will learn and practice five importantstrategies for building your vocabulary.
Strategy 1: Check your knowledge of the words used most frequently in English
Advances in computer technology have made it possible for researchers to analyzethousands of English-language texts containing millions of words. From this researchthey have learned that a small percentage of wordsabout 2,000are used muchmore frequently than all the other words. In fact, these 2,000 most frequent wordsaccount for almost 80 percent of most texts. If you know these words, you have amuch better chance of understanding what you read.
EXERCISE 1
 
 
 
Before you look at the list of the 2,000 most frequent words in English, answer thisquestion:
H
ow many unfamiliar words do you think you will find on the list? (Make a guess.)
 
ow turn to the list of the 2,000 most frequent words in Appendix 1. Read through the list and mark all the words you DO
OT recognize.
 
H
ow many of these words did you mark?Compare this number with your guess in Part A. Did you have a good idea of the extent of yourvocabulary?If you have marked many words on this list, you probably have some difficulty understandingwhat you read. You need to spend extra time working on your vocabulary.
Strategy 2: Focus on the words used in academic texts
Research on academic texts (textbooks and academic journals) has shown that certain wordsare used very frequently in these texts, regardless of the subject matter. These words allowacademic writers to explain or generalize their ideas or research, and to compare them with thework of others. Learning these 570 academic words can improve your comprehension of academic materials.
EXERCISE 2
 
Before you look at the Academic Word List, answer this question:
H
ow many of the words on the list do you think you will recognize? (Make a guess.)
 
Turn to the Academic Word List. Read through the list and mark the words that you DO recognize.
H
ow many of these words did you mark?If you have marked some of the words in the Academic Word List, you have a good start onbuilding your academic vocabulary.
Strategy 3: Use the dictionary effectively
Along with the definition, a dictionary provides a great deal of other information about a word.It tells you the part of speech of the word (noun, verb, adjective, etc.), how to pronounce it,and how to divide it into syllables. An example sentence is often included as well.
 
H
ow many syllables are there in
scrutinize? 
 
What part of speech is
scrupulous? 
 
 
When your teacher
scrutinizes
your work, how do you feel?
 
What else can you
scrunch
besides a napkin?
 
What food do you consider
scrumptious? 
 
 
When pronouncing the word
scrutinize,
where should you place the emphasis?
 
H
ow do you spell the past tense of the verb
scrub? 
scrub'
iskrAb/ v. 1 [I,T] to rub somefhing hard, especiallywith something rough, in order to clean it:
Thekitchen floor needs to be scrubbed and waxed. I Thechildren's freshly-scrubbed faces beamed up at us.
2
[T usually passive]
INFORMAL,
fo decide not to dosomething that you had planned, especially becausethere is a problem:
esterday's shuttle launch wasscrubbed just ten minutes before liftoff 
scrub up
 phr. v.
[I]
to wash your hands and arms
scrumptious
PskrAmpios1
adj.
INFORMAL
food that isscrumptious tastes very good:
scrumptious cheesecake
scrunch
/skrAnt [7 v. [T always adv./prep.]
INFORMAL
to crush and twist something into a small roundshape:
[scrunch sth up/into etc.]
S
he tore out the pages and scrunched them up into a ball.
scrunchie
J'
skrAntli/
n.
[C] a circular rubber bandthat is covered with cloth, used for holding hair inplace
 
before doing a medical operation
scrub
2
n. 1
[U] low bushes and trees that grow invery dry soil
2 scrubs
[plural]
INFORMAL
a loosegreen shirt
and
pants worn by doctors duringmedical operations
scrubber
PskrAtvri n.
[C] a plastic or metal object ora brush that you use to clean pans or floors
scrub brush
l'skrxh-brat/ n.
[C] a stiff brush thatyou use for cleaning things --see picfure at
BRUS
H'
 
scrubby
l
'
skrAbi/
adj.
covered by low bushes:
scrubby terrain
scrubland
i
'
skrAblamdi n. [U] land thaf is coveredwith low bushes
scruff 
/skrAf/
n.
by the scruff of the neck
if you holda person or animal by the scruff of their neck, youhold fhe flesh, fur, or clothes at the back of the neck
scruffy i'skrAfil
adj.
scruffier, scruffiest
dirty andmessy and not taken care of very well:
a scruffy sweatshirt 
scrum
/skram/
n.
[C] an arrangement of players inthe game of 
RU
G
BY,
in which they are pushing veryclose together
 
scruple'
Pskrupol
,
n.
[C usually plural] a belief about right and wrong that prevents you from doingsomething bad:
He
has
absolutely 
no scruples about 
claiming other people's work as his own.
scruple
2
v.
not scruple to do sth
FORMAI,
to be willingto do something, even though it may have harmfulor bad effects:
They did not scruple to bombinnocent civilians.
scrupulous
i
'
skrupy3k
,
s,"
adj.
1 careful to behonest and fair. and making sure that every detail iscorrect:
The finance department is always scrupulousabout their bookkeeping.
--opposite
J
:NSCRUPULOLS
2
done very carefully so that every detail is correct:
This job requires scrupulous attention to detail.
- scrupulously
adv.: Employees' hands must he kept scrupulously clean, --
scrupulousness
n. [U]
scrutinize i'skrut
n,a17./ v. [T] to examine someoneor something very thoroughly and carefully:
D
etectivesscrutinized the area. looking for clues.
 
Strategy 4: Keep a vocabulary notebook
When you encounter new words, write them in a notebook that you use only for vocabularyand not for other course work. (A small notebook is preferable so you can carry it around withyou.) This notebook will help you study vocabulary more effectively. With all your words in oneplace in the notebook, you can easily check your knowledge of words you have studied before.
How to organize and use the notebook:
 
Decide on a method for putting words in order. Many students prefer alphabetical order,though you may also order words according to other categories, such as topic or source(words from extensive reading books, words from
 A
dvanced Reading Power,
and words fromother course books).
 
Use two pages in the notebook. On the left-hand page, write a word, the part of speech,and the word in syllables. Under the word, write the sentence in which you found it. Then,on the right-hand page, write the meaning. (Note: If you can learn the words more quicklyusing definitions in your native language, and your teacher agrees, you may write themeanings in that language.)
 
Check your knowledge of the words by covering one of the pages and trying to rememberthe information on the other.
Example:
 
assumptionnoun (as-sump-tion)
 
S
omething that you think is true
 
How could you make an assumption although you have no proof about their family without meeting them? 
Strategy 5: Use study cards
Study cards can help you review words and make them part of your permanent vocabulary.

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