The Holy Qur\u2019an draws attention to a very important geological function of mountains:
The Function of
to Quran and Science
Imam Ali (P) was always available
when the 3 \ufb01rst Caliphs of Islam
sought his advice on religious matters.
Even thought he disagreed with them
in regard to his rightful position as
Prophet Muhammed\u2019s (M) successor,
heir and inheritor of God\u2019s divine
Knowledge he nevertheless was always
there to lend a hand. His position as
the jurist was on the top of the list
among the companions of the Holy
Irham, and her brother, Ahmed, were excited about the upcoming days. It was Ramadan, a time to
learn appreciation for the things they had, and to think of others who didn\u2019t have as much.
They had both been saving their money all year long. Irham, who was seven years old, sat on her bed
and dumped out her money jar. Coins ran all over the blanket. \u201cThis is a lot of money. Mamma says
we are supposed to help someone. She wants us to think about how much we have, and then think of
someone who doesn\u2019t have very much, and do something nice for them,\u201d Irham said, gathering the
money into a pile. \u201cDump out your jar, Ahmed,\u201d she told her brother.
The coins came spilling out of his jar onto the bed. \u201cWow! We can do a lot for someone with all this
Few months after the Holy Prophet (M) had arrived in Medina, he asked the Ansars (the residents) of Madinah to take up the Muhajirin (the immigrants) from Mecca as their brothers. \u201cBecome brothers for the pleasure of Allah,
was connected into brotherly accord with 45 men of Medina. If an Ansar was a
businessman he took an immigrant as equal partner in his trade, in case of his
being a farmer, half his land he gave to his brother from Mecca; till the system
grew so common that when a man from Medina died, his immigrant brother
was included among the heirs.
But the noble Meccans were unwilling to take undue advantage of their hosts. Abdur Rahman bin
Auf, for example, became a brother to Sa\u2019ad bin Rabi\u2019, and Sa\u2019ad offered him half of what he
owned. He declined the offer with thanks and only asked the way to the market place, where he
soon started a small business independently. Gibbon gives the account in the following words:
\u201cTo eradicate the seed of jealousy, Muhammed judiciously coupled his principal followers
with rights and obligations of brethren, and when Ali found himself without a peer, the
Prophet tenderly declared that he would be the companion and brother of the noble youth.
The expedient was crowned with success; the holy fraternity was respected in peace arid war,
and the two parties vied with each other in a generous emulation of courage and \ufb01delity.\u201d
You never see the tears that she\u2019s about to cry -- instead she turns her head to hide
You never see the times she stills away to her secret closet to pray -- instead she
invites you in to just talk.
You never see how her shoulders are sagging from heavy burdens -- instead she
gives you those shoulders to cry on.
You never see the aches in her heart when her children rebel -- instead she gives
them more patience and love.
You never see the hand she pulls back when she\u2019s rejected -- instead she continues
to lend a \u201chelping\u201d hand.
You never see the aches in her hands from grasping and holding on when she feels
like giving up -- instead she uses those same hands and prays even more.
You never see the aches in her knees and forehead from praying for others -- instead
she spends even more time on her knees.
You never see the fears she has of being a \u201cdisappointment\u201d -- instead she prays for
more power and a sound mind.
You never see any of these things and she doesn\u2019t want you to-- After all, she\u2019s only
\u201cAnd your Lord has commanded that you shall not worship (anyone) but Him,
and do good to your parents. If either or both of them reach old age, say not
to them (so much as) \u201cOouf\u201d nor scold them, but (always) speak unto them
In one such encounter during the time of the 2nd Caliph
Ummar Ibn Al Khattab, a group of Jewish scholars approached
the caliph and said, \u201cWe have a few questions. If we get the
answers to these questions correctly, we will accept the Islamic
faith.\u201dAsk whatever you want to ask,\u201d said Umar. They asked
the following questions.
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab thought over these questions for a time,
then said, \u201cI do not know the answers to these questions. I
will take you to a man who is most knowledgeable in the
commandments of God and the Holy Prophet and the greatest
among us. He then brought the scholars to Imam Ali ibn Abi
Talib (P). They asked the same questions to him. Imam Ali (P)
Solomon\u2019s army was passing by, said to his people, \u201cEnter
your houses so that the army may not stamp you out (without
intention)\u201d. So Allah states in the Holy Qur\u2019an, \u201cUntil they
came to the valley of the Ants, said an ant (addressing
the other ants of the valley) O you ants\u2019 enter into your
dwellings, so that Solomon and his hosts may not crush you
while they know it not.\u201d (27:18)
the stick of Moses which used to change into a snake, the camel of Saleh, and the sheep of Ibrahim (which was sent by Allah to become a ransom for the life of Abraham\u2019s son Ishmael).
Eve,t h re e are the substances (i.e. non-living matter, plants
and animals),four are the Heavenly books: Torah of Moses,
Bible of Jesus, Zubur of Dawood and the Qur\u2019an of Prophet
Muhammed (M).Five are the daily prayers.Six are the days of
creation of the heavens and earth, as per the verse of the Holy
Qur\u2019an: \u201cAnd indeed We created the heavens and the earth
money,\u201d Ahmed said, smiling. \u201cThis is such a special time of year. I\u2019m glad we can help others.\u201d
remember. \u201cWe have to pick someone and do
something very nice without them knowing it is
from us. Who should we pick?\u201d Irham asked.
\u201cLet\u2019s pick our neighbors, Rashid, and Fatima.
I noticed that they had holes in their shoes,\u201d
\u201cThat\u2019s a good idea. We could buy some new
shoes for them. They aren\u2019t as blessed as we are.
We have a lot of shoes, don\u2019t we?\u201d Irham asked
\u201cI have three pair. You have more. Let\u2019s buy
some new shoes for them,\u201d Ahmed said, smiling.
Irham and Ahmed found their Mamma. She was
busy washing some dates. She saw her children
come into the kitchen. \u201cI\u2019m going to make
some Baklawa (a type of sweets) for tonight,\u201d
she said, knowing her family loved to eat that.
\u201cPappa is at the Mosque, in prayer. When he
comes home, after the sun sets, we\u2019ll have some.
In the meantime, you two look like you\u2019ve got
something on your minds.\u201d
Irham began: \u201cWe want to help the poor.
Ahmed and I have been saving our money
all year long and we want to help Rashid and
Fatima, our neighbors.\u201d
Ahmed, with excitement, interrupted, \u201cWe want
to buy them some shoes.\u201d
Mamma smiled at her beautiful children. She
was so proud of them.
\u201cAren\u2019t you hungry, Mamma?\u201d Ahmed asked.
He knew she had not had anything to eat or drink
since dawn that morning.
\u201cI\u2019m a little bit, but that is good for me. Don\u2019t
worry about me. When you\u2019re older, you\u2019ll
understand more and be able to fast too,\u201d she
explained. \u201cWould you like me to take you to the
store to buy the shoes?\u201d she asked.
\u201cWould you, Mamma? Is that all right?\u201d Irham
\u201cWhy of course. Let\u2019s go,\u201d she said.
They walked to the shoe store and went inside.
Irham picked out a pair of shoes for Fatima.
Ahmed picked out a pair for Rashid. They were
both so proud that they\u2019d saved their money so
they could do this to help. Later, they went home
and wrapped the shoe boxes in plain brown
paper. They waited anxiously for night to come.
It would be dark and they could deliver their
The sun began to drop behind the horizon. A
little while later, Pappa came home. He and
Mamma had some lentil soup, then tomato and
cucumber sandwiches. Mamma called to her
children, \u201cIrham. Ahmed. Come and have some
Baklawa, and some fresh dates.\u201d The children
came running into the kitchen. Mamma cut them
a big piece.
They gobbled it down quickly as they were
anxious to do their good deed. \u201cSlow down,
children,\u201d Pappa urged, laughing.
It was soon dark outside. Mamma had the
children go and get the boxes they\u2019d wrapped
so carefully. They put their coats on and walked
quietly over to Rashid and Fatima\u2019s house.
Mamma whispered, \u201cAll right, children. We
must be very quiet and very fast. Ahmed, you
knock on the door and then run over here, to
this bush, where Irham and I will be hiding.
We\u2019ll watch as they come and \ufb01nd their gifts.\u201d
Irham and Ahmed giggled with delight. Irham
and Mamma hid, and Ahmed tiptoed up to the
door. He put both of the boxes down on the
porch, and knocked hard. Then he ran, and ran,
and ran, as fast as he could, to where Irham and
Mamma were. \u201cShhh,\u201d Mamma whispered.
\u201cSomeone opened the door.\u201d
They watched as Rashid and Fatima came out
onto the porch. \u201cLook! There are presents for
with excitement. He and Fatima looked around.
It was very dark and they couldn\u2019t see anyone.
They picked up the boxes and took them inside.
After a minute or two, waiting to make sure they
wouldn\u2019t be seen, Mamma, Ahmed, and Irham,
snuck quietly back to their house. Ahmed started
laughing. \u201cPappa! Pappa! We did it! We snuck
up and left the presents!\u201d
Irham added, \u201cThey didn\u2019t see us, Pappa. They
don\u2019t know it was us.\u201d She was laughing too.
Mamma and Pappa stood back and looked at
their children. They were so proud of them.
They knew their children knew the real meaning
of giving and of sacri\ufb01ce. The next morning,
as Mamma, Pappa, Irham, and Ahmed went to
their car to drive into town, they saw Rashid and
Fatima outside playing. They were both wearing
their brand new shoes. Nobody said a thing.
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density. Airy was suggesting that mountains have
a deep root of lower density rock which the plains
lack. Four years after Airy published his work, J.H
Pratt offered an alternative hypothesis... By this
hypothesis rock columns below mountains must have
a lower density, because of their greater length, than
shorter rock columns beneath plains. Both Airy and
Pratt\u2019s hypothesis imply that surface irregularities
are balanced by differences in density of rocks below
the major features (mountains and plains) of the crust. This state of BALANCE is
described as the concept of ISOSTASY.
Today, we know that the rocky external layer of the Earth\u2019s surface is riven by deep
faults and split into plates swimming above the molten lava. Since the Earth revolves
very quickly around its own axis, were it not for the \ufb01xing effect of the mountains,
these plaques would shift. In such an event, soil would not collect on the Earth\u2019s
surface, water would not accumulate in the soil, no plants could grow, and no roads or
houses could be built. In short, life on Earth would be impossible. Through the mercy
of Allah, however, mountains act like nails, and to a large extent, prevent movement
in the Earth\u2019s surface.
We subjected the mountains to glorify [Allah] with him in the
evening and at sunrise.
He cast \ufb01rmly embedded mountains on the earth so it would not move under you,
and rivers and pathways so that hopefully
you would be guided.
This vital role of mountains, which has been discovered by modern geological and
seismic research, was revealed in the Holy Qur>an centuries ago as an example of the
supreme wisdom in God>s creation.
 www.wamy.co.uk/announcements3.html, from an address by Prof. Zighloul Raghib El-Naggar.
 Carolyn Sheets, Robert Gardner, and Samuel F. Howe, General Science (Newton, MA: Allyn and
Bacon Inc.: 1985), 305.
 Frank Press, and Raymond Siever, Earth, 3rd ed. (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Company:
 M. J. Selby, Earth\u2019s Changing Surface (Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1985), 32.
it; and above them shall bear that day `Arsh\u2019 (the throne of authority). of your Lord, eight of them.\u201d (69:17) Nine are the nine signs given
gave Moses nine clear signs (miracles); so
ask the children of Israel when he came to
them, Pharaoh said to him; \u201cVerily I deem
you O\u2019 Moses one bewitched.\u201d(17:101). Ten
are the ten days, i.e. God had promised Moses
that he would stay on the mountain of Toor for
thirty days, and later added ten more days to this
duration, as it is stated in the Qur\u2019an. \u201cAnd we
made an appointment with Moses for thirty
nights and completed it with ten more; Thus
was completed the term of his Lord, forty
nights, and (before he went up) Moses said to
his brother Aaron: You take my place among
my people, act rightly and follow not the
path of the mischief-makers.\u201d (7:142). Eleven
O\u2019 my father; Verily I did see (dream) eleven
stars and the sun and the moon, I saw them
all prostrating to me.\u201d (12:4). Twelve are the
Moses sought water for his people; said We,
`Strike the rock with your staff\u2019 Then gushed
out there from twelve springs; each people
knew their drinking place; \u201cEat and drink
God\u2019s provision, and commit not evil in the
earth acting mischievously.\u201d(2:60). Twentythe
to conquer all fear of death when \ufb01ghting,
(so that), if there be twenty of you who are
patient in adversity, they might overcome
two hundred\u2026 (8:65). Thirty represents the
out of his people seventy men to come (and pray for forgiveness) at a time set by Us\u2026\u201d (7:155). Eighty are the number of lashes you
\u201cAnd as for those who accuse chaste women
(of adultery), and then are unable to produce
four witnesses (in support of their accusation),
\ufb02og them with eighty lashes, and ever after
refuse to accept from them any testimony
- since it is they that are truly depraved!\u201d
(24:4). Ninety-nine refers to the number of
ninety-nine ewes, whereas I have (only) one
ewe - and yet he said, \u2018Make her over to me,\u2019
and forcibly prevailed against me in this (our)
When the scholars heard the replies of Imam Ali
(P) they said, \u201cWe bear witness that there is no
god but Allah and that Muhammed (M) is His
Messenger and that you, Ali (P), is the \u201cWasi\u201d
and successor of the Messenger of God as Aaron
was the \u201cWasi\u201d and successor of Moses. They
all embraced Islam, went back to their tribe and
converted all of them to Islam.
and Ali is its Gate. Whoever wants to have
access to the City, then let him enter it thru
its Gate.\u201d And indeed, Ali (P) shows time and
time again that he is the custodian of Divine
Knowledge and that he was, after the Prophet
(M), God\u2019s vicegerent on earth. All of God\u2019s
representatives to mankind had this unique trait
and each one of them was assessed by the people
and was able to solve problems and issues that
no one had the solutions for.
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