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Definition of Species

Definition of Species

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Published by: mastermind2013 on Oct 27, 2010
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DEFINITION OF SPECIESIn biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classificationand ataxonomic rank . A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of  interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are often used, such assimilarity of DNA, morphology or ecological niche. Presence of specific locally adapted traits may further subdivide species intosubspecies.Each species is placed within a singlegenus. This is a hypothesis that the species is more closely related to other species within its genus than to species of other genera. All species are given a binomial nameconsisting of thegeneric nameandspecific name(or specific epithet). The commonly used names for plant and animal taxa sometimes correspond to species: for example, "lion", "walrus", and "Camphor tree" – each refers to a species. In other cases common names do not: for example, "deer " refers to afamilyof 34 species, includingEld's Deer ,Red Deer andElk (Wapiti). The last two species were once considered a single species, illustrating how species boundaries may change with increased scientific knowledge.Total number of species (estimated): 7–100 millions (identified and unidentified), including:
n endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becomingextinctbecause it is either few in numbers, or threatened by changingenvironmental or predation parameters. TheInternational Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) has calculated the percentage of endangered species as 40percent of all organisms based on the sample of species that have been evaluated through 2006.
 TheSiberian Tigeris a subspecies of tiger that is critically endangered; threesubspecies of tigerare already extinct.
The most endangered asiatic top predator, thedholeis onthe edge of extinction.
n 'Endemic Species' is one that is only found in a particular region and nowhere else in the world. Since these species arenot widespread and may be confined to only one or two protected areas, they are of great conservation concern.
Endemism is theecologicalstate of being unique to a particular geographic location, such as a specific island,habitattype, nation or other defined zone. To be endemic to a place or area means that it is found only in that part of the world and nowhere else. For example, all species of lemur are endemic to the island oMadagascar . There are 50 species, all native to the island.
India has many endemic plant and vertebrate species. Among plants, species endemism is estimated at 33% with c. 140endemic genera but no endemic families (Botanical Survey of India, 1983). Areas rich in endemism are north-east India, theWestern Ghats and the north-western and eastern Himalayas. A small pocket of local endemism also occurs in the EasternGhats (MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 1986). The Gangetic plains are generally poor in endemics, while the Andaman and NicobarIslands contribute at least 220 species to the endemic flora of India (Botanical Survey of India, 1983)BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION IN INDIA
Biogeography deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. Communities of plants and animals in differentgeographical areas of the world differ widely from each other. Biogeography is divided into branches: i] Phyto-geography andii] Zoo-geography.Phyto-geography (plant geography) deals with origin, distribution and environmental interrelationships of plants.Zoogeography deals with the migration and distribution of animals.From the stand point of biodiversity, India is given the status of a “Mega-diversity” zone.CISSPThere are 10 biogeographic
 Nectarinia violacea
) isexclusively found inFynbosvegetation.
zones witch are distinguished clearly in India. They are as follows—v Trans Himalayan zone.v Himalayan zone.v Desert zone.v Semiarid zone.v Western ghat zone.v Deccan platea zone.v Gangetic plain zone.v North east zone.v Coastal zone.v Islands present near the shore line.1. Trans Himalayan zone:This is the northern most area of the country around Himalayas. This zone is not related to mountains but it is the areapresent surrounding the mountains.70-290This region shows 1. Irregular vegetation.2. It has the richest wild sheep producing quality wool. 3. It has not only quality sheep but also goat community which isqualitatively and quantitatively in superior in the world. 4. Snow leopard is a special animal observable in this zone. 5.Migratory birds like black neck crane are seen here. The great Indian bustard which is an endangered variety is also seen inthe grasslands west to this zone.2. Himalayan zone:This is a hilly region with good flora and fauna, exhibiting maximum biodiversity in this region. There are national parks herein this zone.3. Desert zone:This is a part of Rajasthan state, from where, the great desert of western India namely ‘Thar desert’ starts, and Desert zoneis really a deserted zone with areas like Jaisalmir surrounded by sand dunes, which are the best centers for studying soilerosion by wind.4. Semi arid zone:It starts in Rajasthan and extends up to some parts in the state of Punjab and Haryana. In this area, ground water andsurface water is much less. Dry xerophytic vegetation is predominant, fauna is also minimum.N10-004Very few orchids andbamboo and other plants are seen.5. Western ghats:It represents the mountainous western zone of south peninsular India having rich flora and fauna with tropical rain forestsextending from Konkan region of Maharashtra up to the western part of Kerala generally called Malabaar coast of ArabianSea.Wild relatives of cultivated plants like banana, mango, citrus, black pepper are found abundantly in this part.6. Deccan Plateau zone:This is the central table land of south India with rich flora and fauna. But some areas represent semiarid type of vegetation.Rainfall occurs mainly by the south west monsoon, in these areas and so limited number of dense forests is present inDeccan. Deccan platean is represented in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu,Karnataka and Kerala.
Endangered species
An endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, orthreatened by changing environmental or predation parameters. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) hascalculated the percentage of endangered species as 40 percent of all organisms based on the sample of species that have beenevaluated through 2006.[2]Many nations have laws offering protection to conservation reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land developmentor creating preserves.

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