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Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium botulinum

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Published by rahulraj1122
Clostridium botulinum , UDAY KUMAR FISHRIES COLLEGE & RESEARCH INSTITUTE (TANUVAS)
History: y y y y y y Clostridium botulinum is one of the most important pathogens associated with food. Produces neurotoxin called botulinal neurotoxins (BoNT); diseases caused botulism. Botulism comes from the latin word botulus meaning sausage (seasoned minced meat). The first known outbreak of botulism occurred in Germany, 1793 caused by spoiled sausage. Clostridium botulinum, was first isolated in the late 19 th century. Botulism is a serious condition that can cause pa
Clostridium botulinum , UDAY KUMAR FISHRIES COLLEGE & RESEARCH INSTITUTE (TANUVAS)
History: y y y y y y Clostridium botulinum is one of the most important pathogens associated with food. Produces neurotoxin called botulinal neurotoxins (BoNT); diseases caused botulism. Botulism comes from the latin word botulus meaning sausage (seasoned minced meat). The first known outbreak of botulism occurred in Germany, 1793 caused by spoiled sausage. Clostridium botulinum, was first isolated in the late 19 th century. Botulism is a serious condition that can cause pa

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Published by: rahulraj1122 on Oct 27, 2010
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Clostridium botulinum
History:
y
 
Clostridium botulinum
is one of the most important pathogens associated with food.
 
y
 
P
roduces neurotoxin called botulinal neurotoxins (BoNT); diseases caused botulism.
 
y
 
Botulism comes from the latin word botulus meaning sausage (seasoned mincedmeat).
 
y
 
The first known outbreak of botulism occurred in Germany, 1793 caused by spoiledsausage.
y
 
Clostridium botulinum,
was first isolated in the late 19
th
century.
y
 
Botulism is a serious condition that can cause paralysis and death. Although themortality rates for botulism have declined significantly in the 20
th
century (~50% to~5%) it is still a life-threatening disease.
y
 
D
uring the world war & the war between the two nation, this toxin was widely used.
In
troductio
n
:
y
 
Gram positive , Spore forming rods.
y
 
Anaerobic , catalase negative.
y
 
P
roduces botulinum toxin; toxin are produces by vegetative cells.
y
 
Toxins heat labile.
y
 
Spores extremely resistance to heat.
y
 
I
t prefers low acid environment.
y
 
O
val or spherical spores produce only under anaerobic conditions.
y
 
Grow well in water activity (Aw) =0.93
S
ources:Huma
n
:
C. botulinum
is not a normal part of the healthy human intestinal flora.
A
n
imal:
W
hen animals suffer botulism it is usually caused by ingestion of pre-formed toxin(Type C and
D
).
Food:
I
ntoxication outbreaks have been associated with food processing failures and/ortemperature abuse allowing outgrowth of the spore and toxin production.Foods implicated are those stored under oil, native fermented foods, homepreserves when bottled or canned, commercially canned foods, seafood and fruits andvegetables (particularly those in close contact with soil).
O
f 405 botulism events in the USA between 1950 and 2005, 92% were linked tohome-processed foods.Honey may carry spores and has been associated with a number of cases of infantbotulism.
E
nv
iro
n
me
n
t:
C. botulinum
spores are found worldwide distributed in soils, dust andsediments, but at very low concentrations.
 
T
ra
n
smissio
n
Routes:
M
ost transmission is foodborne.
P
erson-to-person transmission doesnot occur.
Botulism toxi
n
 
 
Toxin produced in improperly prepared meat, vegetables, fruits
 
spores not killed by boiling, survive inadequate pressure sterilization
 
germinate in foods, vegetative cells produce toxin
 
no visible spoilage, bad taste.
 
Spores germinate in animal carcasses or rotting vegetation
 
produce enough toxin to cause disease outbreaks in ruminants, horses, mink, fowl
 
carnivores, swine, fish occasionally affected
T
oxi
n
Classificatio
n
:
y
 
Types A-G, antigenically distinct.
y
 
Strains divided in two parts based on physiological difference i.e.proteolytic  cause food spoilagenon proteolytic  without obvious spoilage.
y
 
Toxins are divided into 4 groups:Group
I
 type A, B & F  food spoilageGroup
II
 type B, E & F - non-proteolytic and may be present in foods withoutobvious spoilage.Group
III
 type C,
D
 Group
IV
 type G
y
 
Type A- 54%, Type B- 15%, Type E- 27%
y
 
Types C,
D
reported in animals only
y
 
Type G in soil samples only
y
 
Types A, B, E and F (rarely) cause botulism in humans (
W
H
O
, 2002).
y
 
Type E-producing strains are marine inhabitants
y
 
M
ortality rate: A 75%, others 20%.
y
 
Humans likely susceptible to all types.
G
ROW
T
H
AND
 
I
TS
CO
NT
ROL
 
G
rowth
 
 
S
ur
v
i
v
alCo
n
trol:
T
here are fi
v
e cli
n
ical categories of botulism:1) Foodbor
n
e botulism2) Wou
n
d botulism3)
In
fa
n
t botulism4)
In
halatio
n
botulism5)
In
determi
n
ate botulismFoodbor
n
e botulism
o
 
caused by eating foods that contain botulism toxin.
o
 
P
artially cooked or commercial canned food.
In
fa
n
t a
n
d child botulism
o
 
caused by ingesting spores of the bacteria which germinate and producetoxin in the intestines;
I
ntestinal colonization of organisms
o
 
O
ccurs in children < one year old
o
 
I
ngests spores, grows in bowel & release toxin
o
 
infant botulism (floppy baby syndrome)
o
 
low concentration of spores ( 0.25 spores per g) leads to disease in infants.

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