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I T NOTES

I T NOTES

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Notes by goharzaman
Notes by goharzaman

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10/11/2012

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Introduction of Computer
:Computer is an electronic device, which Receive data from the input device(s),Process it Store it, and then display information on the output devices.
Data
Data: The fact and figure is called Data. OR The raw material things is called Data. For example Name and Address etc.The Computer cannot take any decision directly on data.
Information
Information: The process form of data is called Information, OR Meaningful thing are called Information. i. e Ali, khan, Mardan , etcComputer can take any decision directly on Information.
Types of data.
1) Numeric data.It consist of Numbers/Digits from 0,1,2…9.2) Alphabetic data. cleanIt consist of letters from A,B,…….Z Or a,b,……z.3) Alphanumeric data.It consist of Numbers/Digits from 0,1,2…9 and letters from A,B,…….Z Or a,b,…………z. i.e. House Number A/10;
History of Computer.
Abacus was the 1st recognized calculating device about 5000 years ago. Abacusmarked the 1st step on the road to the computer. In 1617 John Nipper's inventedlogarithmic device called Nipper's Bone. This device gives a quick and accuratemultiplication and division of large numbers. In 1642 Blaise Pascal invented the Istmechanical calculator, called pascaline.After pascaline William's Libnitz completed his machine in 1694 called LibnitzMachine. Pascalline could only add and subtract but Libnitz's Machine could alsomultiply, divide and find the square root. The French Manufacturer Joseph jacquarddeveloped a system in which punch card were used for the 1st time.

In 1823, a British Mathematician 'Charles Babbage' developed a steam power calculator called difference engine. In 1937, Howard H. Aiken began a project with thesupport of IBM Corporation in Howard university, and he completed a machine calledMark-1 in 1944. The Mark-1 was 8-feet high and 55 feet long and sounded like a roomfull of old ladies. It was an 1st electromechanical device.
Generation of Computer
:There are six Generation of computer:
First Generation of Computer :(1945 -1950)
The Generation of computer were based on vacuum tube technology.The first Generation of computer were large in size slow in speed.And expensive. ENIAC Stand for Electronic Numerical Integrated and computer.Mark –I, Mark –
II
Vacuum tube technology made possible the start of electronic digital computers. Fastestcalculating devices of their time. Computations/Processes were done in milliseconds
.
Too
big
in size
and has
more weight.
Size of ENIAC was 1500 square feet, and weighed30 tons.
Unreliable
(A vacuum tube failure occurred on average once every 7minutes and it took about 15minutes to find and replace the faulty tube.
Heat Problem
(due to thousands of Vacuum tubes).
Air-conditioning
required.
Manual assembly
of individual components into a function unit.
Non-portable
– these computers were fixed on their place.
Second Generation (1950-1959).
The computers of this Generation were based on Transistor technology. (Vacuum tubereplace by transistor). The transistor was small in size, fast in Operation and lessexpensive then Vacuum tube. The Speed of these Computer was high. E,g IBM _1401.

Computers were
small in size
. The first transistor was one-hundredth of the size of avacuum tube.
More
reliable
.

Less heat
generated.

Computational times
were reduced from milliseconds to
microseconds.

Air-conditioning required
.

Commercial production
was
difficult
and
costly
.
Third Generation (1960-1969).
This Generation of computer were based on Integrated Circuits (ICs). (Transistor replace by ICs). Also this Generation of computer were high in speed, Accuracy and less Price.e, g IBM-360.

Smaller in size
, even
more reliable
, and
lower heat-generated
as compared to previousgenerations.
Easily portable.

Less power
required.
Commercial production
was
easier
and
cheaper
.
Computer

memory
became
volatile
.

Air-conditioning required
.
Highly
sophisticated technology required
for the manufacture of IC chips.

Time sharing
and
multiprogramming problem
.
Forth Generation (1970_1980).
The Computer of this Generation were based on Large Scale Integration (LSI). (ICsreplace by LSI) .Micro Processor was used in This Generation. For example IBM-PC.

Smallest

in size
and
very reliable.

Heat generated is negligible
and thus
no air-conditioning
required
.