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The Seismic Method

The Seismic Method

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Published by Ogunjobi Adebola

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Published by: Ogunjobi Adebola on Oct 29, 2010
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03/08/2012

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Basic Seismology
 
ForPetroleum Industry
 
INDEX
1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 PRINCIPLES OF THEORY..................................................................................................2
2.1 Energy Propagation and Elastic Waves........................................................................................................................22.2 Ray Theory.......................................................................................................................................................................5
3 SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION.........................................................................................10
3.1 Land Data Acquisition..................................................................................................................................................123.2 Marine Data Acquisition...............................................................................................................................................14
4 PROCESSING...................................................................................................................16
4.1 Preprocessing.................................................................................................................................................................164.2 Static Corrections..........................................................................................................................................................174.3 Deconvolution................................................................................................................................................................174.4 Velocity Analysis, NMO correction and Stack...........................................................................................................174.5 Time Migration..............................................................................................................................................................184.6 Special processing..........................................................................................................................................................19
4.6.1 A.V.O.......................................................................................................................................................................194.6.2 Depth Imaging..........................................................................................................................................................20
5 POTENTIAL METHODS....................................................................................................21
 
1 Introduction
This report is aimed at non-geophysicist students involved in the petroleum industry and deals briefly with seismicacquisition and processing and other geophysics methodologies.Hydrocarbon accumulations are located under the surface of the earth, at depths of between 500m and 5000m; for thisreason it is impossible to collect a large amount of direct information. Geophysics is useful because it is an indirectmethod of studying the sub-surface and, as a consequence, represents a very important tool in the petroleum industry for localizing and evaluating possible targets. It represents the first step in exploration and can be divided into planning,acquisition, processing, interpretation and mapping. The method is successfully applied in almost all environments: sea,land, transitional, etc…Of all the geophysics methods, seismic is the most important and most widely used. The underlying concept of seismicexploration is simple. In nature acoustic waves are generated by earthquakes; in the petroleum industry they are generated(with frequencies typically ranging from about 5 Hz to just over 100 Hz) using specific energy sources. As these soundwaves leave the seismic source and travel downward into the Earth, they encounter changes in the Earth's geologicallayering, which cause reflections, refractions and diffractions. The reflections travel upward to the surface whereelectromechanical transducers (geophones or hydrophones) detect the echoes arriving on the surface and convert theminto electrical signals, which are then amplified, filtered, digitized, and recorded. The recorder consequently measures thetravel times from source to reflector and from reflector to receiver (Two Way Time) and the characteristics of the signal(frequency, amplitude). Different Two Way Times are due to different reflection points. The recorded seismic datausually undergoes elaborate processing using digital computers. The result is a vertical section (2D method) or a 3Dvolume (3D) representing the earth's structure.After data has been acquired and processed, the next two steps involve interpretation and mapping; experiencedgeophysicists are needed to evaluate whether the rocks might contain valuable resources and if it is opportune to drill awell.A brief description of non-seismic methods is also given (chapter 5).
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