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About in Marshall McLuhan

About in Marshall McLuhan

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Published by: Muthaiyan G. on Oct 30, 2010
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Marshall McLuhan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"McLuhan" redirects here. For the son of Marshall McLuhan, see Eric McLuhan.Marshall McLuhanMarshall McLuhan in the early 1970sBorn Herbert Marshall McLuhan July 21, 1911 Edmonton, AlbertaDied December 31, 1980 (aged 69) Toronto, OntarioMain interests: media theoryNotable ideas: the medium is the message, global villageHerbert Marshall McLuhan, CC (July 21, 1911
December 31, 1980) was aCanadian educator, philosopher, and scholar
a professor of English literature, aliterary critic, a rhetorician, and a communication theorist. McLuhan's work is viewed asone of the cornerstones of the study of media theory, as well as having practicalapplications in the advertising and television industries.[1][2]McLuhan is known for the expressions "the medium is the message" and "globalvillage". McLuhan was a fixture in media discourse from the late 1960s to his death andhe continues to be an influential and controversial figure. More than ten years after hisdeath he was named the "patron saint" of Wired magazine.
1 Life and career2 Major works2.1 The Mechanical Bride (1951)2.1.1 Examples of advertisements2.2 The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962)2.2.1 Movable type2.2.2 The global village2.3 Understanding Media (1964)2.3.1 "Hot" and "cool" media2.4 The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects (1967)2.5 War and Peace in the Global Village (1968)2.6 From Cliché to Archetype (1970)3 Key concepts3.1 Tetrad3.2 Figure and ground4 Legacy5 Notes6 Works cited6.1 By Marshall McLuhan6.2 About Marshall McLuhan
7 Further reading8 External links
Life and career
McLuhan was born in Edmonton, Alberta, to Elsie Naomi (née Hall) and HerbertErnest McLuhan. His brother, Maurice, was born two years later. "Marshall" was afamily name: his maternal grandmother's surname. Both of his parents were born inCanada. His mother was a Baptist schoolteacher who later became an actress. Hisfather was a Methodist and had a real estate business in Edmonton. When war brokeout, the business failed, and McLuhan's father enlisted in the Canadian army. After ayear of service he contracted influenza and remained in Canada, away from the front.After Herbert's discharge from the army in 1915, the McLuhan family moved toWinnipeg, Manitoba, where Marshall grew up and went to school, attending KelvinTechnical High School before enrolling in the University of Manitoba in 1928.[3]At Manitoba, McLuhan's discomfort with religion[4] and his turn to literature togratify his soul's hunger for truth and beauty[5] initiated a stage in his spiritualdevelopment which he would later refer to as agnosticism.[6] McLuhan earned a BA(1933)
winning a University Gold Medal in Arts and Sciences[7][8]
and MA (1934) inEnglish from the University of Manitoba, after a one year stint as an engineering major.He had long desired to pursue graduate studies in England and, having failed to securea Rhodes scholarship to Oxford, McLuhan was accepted for enrollment at the Universityof Cambridge. Although he already had earned BA and MA degrees at Manitoba,Cambridge required him to enroll as an undergraduate "affiliated" student, with oneyear's credit toward a three-year Cambridge Bachelor's degree, before any doctoralstudies.[9] He entered Trinity Hall, Cambridge in the Fall of 1934, where he studiedunder I. A. Richards and F. R. Leavis, and was influenced by New Criticism.[10] Uponreflection years after, he credited the faculty there with influencing the direction of hislater work because of their emphasis on the training of perception and such concepts asRichards' notion of feedforward.[11] These studies formed an important precursor to hislater ideas on technological forms.[12] He received his bachelor's degree fromCambridge in 1936[13] and began graduate work. Later, he returned from England totake a job as a teaching assistant at the University of Wisconsin
Madison, which heheld for the 1936
37 academic year, unable to find a suitable job in Canada.[14]While studying the trivium at Cambridge he took the first steps toward hiseventual conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1937,[15] founded on his reading of G. K.Chesterton.[16] In 1935 he wrote to his mother: "[H]ad I not encountered Chesterton, Iwould have remained agnostic for many years at least".[17] At the end of March1937,[18] McLuhan completed what was a slow but total conversion process when hewas formally received into the Roman Catholic Church. After consulting with a minister,his father accepted the decision to convert; his mother, however, felt that his conversionwould hurt his career and was inconsolable.[19] McLuhan was devout throughout hislife, but his religion remained a private matter.[20] He had a lifelong interest in thenumber three[21]
the trivium, the Trinity
and sometimes said that the Virgin Maryprovided intellectual guidance for him.[22] For the rest of his career he taught in RomanCatholic institutions of higher education. From 1937 to 1944 he taught English at Saint
Louis University (with an interruption from 1939 to 1940 when he returned toCambridge). At Saint Louis he tutored and befriended Walter J. Ong, S.J. (1912
2003),who would go on to write his Ph.D. dissertation on a topic McLuhan had called to hisattention, and who would himself also later become a well-known authority oncommunication and technology.While in St. Louis, he also met his future wife. On August 4, 1939, McLuhanmarried teacher and aspiring actress Corinne Lewis (1912
2008)[23] of Fort Worth,Texas, and they spent 1939
40 in Cambridge, where he completed his master's degree(awarded in January 1940[13]) and began to work on his doctoral dissertation onThomas Nashe and the verbal arts. War had broken out in Europe while the McLuhanswere in England, and he obtained permission to complete and submit his dissertationfrom the United States, without having to return to Cambridge for an oral defense. In1940 the McLuhans returned to Saint Louis University, where he continued teachingand they started a family. He was awarded a Ph.D. in December 1943.[24] Returning toCanada, from 1944 to 1946 McLuhan taught at Assumption College in Windsor,Ontario. Moving to Toronto in 1946, McLuhan joined the faculty of St. Michael's College,a Catholic college of the University of Toronto. Hugh Kenner was one of his studentsand Canadian economist and communications scholar Harold Innis was a universitycolleague who had a strong influence on McLuhan's work.In the early 1950s, McLuhan began the Communication and Culture seminars,funded by the Ford Foundation, at the University of Toronto. As his reputation grew, hereceived a growing number of offers from other universities and, to keep him, theuniversity created the Centre for Culture and Technology in 1963.[12] He published hisfirst major work during this period: The Mechanical Bride (1951) was an examination ofthe effect of advertising on society and culture. He also produced an important journal,Explorations, with Edmund Carpenter, throughout the 1950s.[25] Together with HaroldInnis, Eric A. Havelock, and Northrop Frye, McLuhan and Carpenter have beencharacterized as the Toronto School of communication theory. McLuhan remained atthe University of Toronto through 1979, spending much of this time as head of hisCentre for Culture and Technology.McLuhan was named to the Albert Schweitzer Chair in Humanities at FordhamUniversity in the Bronx, New York, for one year (1967
68).[26] While at Fordham,McLuhan was diagnosed with a benign brain tumor; it was treated successfully. Hereturned to Toronto, where, for the rest of his life, he worked at the University of Torontoand lived in Wychwood Park, a bucolic enclave on a hill overlooking the downtownwhere Anatol Rapoport was his neighbour. In 1970, McLuhan was made a Companionof the Order of Canada.[27] In 1975 the University of Dallas hosted him from April toMay, appointing him the McDermott Chair.Marshall and Corinne McLuhan had six children: Eric, twins Mary and Teresa,Stephanie, Elizabeth and Michael. The associated costs of a large family eventuallydrove McLuhan to advertising work and accepting frequent consulting and speakingengagements for large corporations, IBM and AT&T among them.[12] In September1979 he suffered a stroke, which affected his ability to speak. The University ofToronto's School of Graduate Studies tried to close his research center shortlythereafter, but was deterred by substantial protests, most notably by Woody Allen, inwhose Oscar-winning motion picture Annie Hall McLuhan had a cameo role; Allen had

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