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Published by snuparich

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Published by: snuparich on Oct 31, 2010
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ADJECTIVULGradele de comparatie
1)pozitiv = adjectivul nu se schimba2)comparativ- de inferioritate (2.1.)- de egalitate (2.2.)- de superioritate (2.3.)3) superlativ- relativ (3.1.)- absolut (3.2.)2.1. Comparativ de inferioritate
pt adj scurte (mono si bisilabice) se formeaza din:not so/not as + adj + asEx: This room is not so big as the bedroom.sauThis room is not as big as the bedroom.
pt adj lungi se formeaza:less + adj + thanEx: The chair is less comfortable than the bed.2.2. Comparativ de egalitateAtat pt adj scurte cat si pt lungi:as + adj + asEx: The bed is as good as the chair.Ideea de egalitate mai poate fi sugerata si prin constructia:the same + subst + as
si nu
!!!Ex: This room is the same size as the other one.Schimbare de valoare gramaticalaAdjectivSubstantivbig, smallsize (masura)long, shortlength (lungime)broad, narrowbreadth (largime pt ceva concret)wide, narrowwidth (largime pt ceva abstract)high, lowheight (inaltime)deep, shallowdepth (adancime)heavy, lightweight (greutate)strong, weakstrength (putere)..etc.Constructii cu comparativul de egalitate:
as brave as a lionas blind as a batas black as coalas busy as a beeas cool as a cucumber as clear as daylightas dry as a boneas easy as ABCas fresh as a daisyas hairy as a gorillaas mad as a hatter (palarier)as poor as a church-mouseas silent as a graveas wise as Solomonas soft as silkas smooth as grassas gentle as a lamb…….etc.2.3. Comparativul de superioritate- pt adj scurteadj + er + thanModificari ortografice:1)daca adj se termina in “e”, se adauga doar “r”Ex: nice – nicer 2)daca adj se termina in “y” precedat de consoana, se transforma “y” in “ier”Ex: pretty – prettier Exceptii: shy shyer sly – slyer wry – wryer (stramb)3) daca adj se termina in consoana precedata de vocala, dublez consoana finalaEx: big – bigger - pt adj lungimore + adj + thanEx: The book is more interesting than the movie.Adj provenite din latina sunt urmate de “to” si nu de “than”Ex: He is superior to me.3.1. Superlativul relativthe + adj +estEx: large the largestsilly – the silliestModificarile ortografice sunt la fel.Pentru adj lungi:
the most+ adjEx: This is the most expensive thing.
dupa superlativ urmeaza prepozitiile “of” sau “in”Ex: He is the best of all/the best in my group.
daca se face comparatie intre 2 elemente, comparativul implica superlativul:the + comparativEx: Between you and me, I am the older.3.2. Superlativul absolutvery + adjvery poate fi inlocuit cu: extremelyexceptionallytremendouslyawfully
nu toate adj au grad de comparatie, unele definesc ideea de unitate (own, complete,proper, perfect, marvelous, maximum, minimum).Altele au sufixe si prefixe:extra – largeover – crowdedsuper – fineultra – shortpricelessComparatia neregulatagood – better – the bestbad – worse – the worstill – worse – the worstmany – more – the mostmuch – more – the mostlittle – less – the leastnear – nearer – the nearest (cel mai apropiat); next (urmatorul)far – farther – the farthest (in spatiu)far – further – the furthest (in timp)late – later – the latest; the last (ultimul); the latter (ult din 2)Dintre 2, primul este “the former”, nu “the first”.up – upper – the upmostin – inner – the inmostout – outer – the outmostfore – former – the foremostold – older – the oldestold – elder – the eldest (doar atributiv, pt membrii aceleiasi familii)Ex: My elder brother is older than me. (fratele meu mai mare)Constructii adjectivale1)cu mult mai = much/ a lot + comparativ

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