Introduction

Preliminaries

The Real Numbers

2.1 The Number Line And Algebra Of The Real Num-

2.2 Exercises

2.3 Order

2.3.1 Set Notation

2.4 Exercises With Answers

2.5 Exercises

2.6 The Absolute Value

2.7 Exercises

2.8. WELL ORDERING PRINCIPLE AND ARCHIMEDIAN PROPERTY 27

2.8 Well Ordering Principle And Archimedian Prop-

2.9 Exercises

2.10. DIVISIBILITY AND THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHMETIC 33

2.10 Divisibility And The Fundamental Theorem Of Arith-

2.11 Exercises

2.12 Systems Of Equations

2.13 Exercises

2.14 Completeness of R

2.15 Review Exercises

3.1 Similar Triangles And Pythagorean Theorem

3.2. CARTESIAN COORDINATES AND STRAIGHT LINES 49

3.2 Cartesian Coordinates And Straight Lines

3.3 Exercises

3.4 Distance Formula And Trigonometric Functions

3.5. THE CIRCULAR ARC SUBTENDED BY AN ANGLE 55

3.5 The Circular Arc Subtended By An Angle

3.6 The Trigonometric Functions

3.7 Exercises

3.8 Some Basic Area Formulas

3.8.1 Areas Of Triangles And Parallelograms

3.8.2 The Area Of A Circular Sector

3.9 Exercises

3.10 Parabolas, Ellipses, and Hyperbolas

3.10.1 The Parabola

3.10.2 The Ellipse

3.10.3 The Hyperbola

3.11 Exercises

The Complex Numbers

4.1 Exercises

Functions Of One Variable

Functions

5.1 General Considerations

5.2 Exercises

5.3 Continuous Functions

5.4 Suﬃcient Conditions For Continuity

5.5 Continuity Of Circular Functions

5.6 Exercises

5.7 Properties Of Continuous Functions

5.8 Exercises

5.9 Limits Of A Function

5.12 Exercises

5.13 Uniform Continuity

5.14 Exercises

5.15 Theorems About Continuous Functions

Derivatives

6.1 Velocity

6.2 The Derivative

6.10 Curve Sketching

6.11 Exercises

7.1 The Circular Functions

7.2 Exercises

7.3 The Exponential And Log Functions

7.3.1 The Rules Of Exponents

7.3.2 The Exponential Functions, A Wild Assumption

7.3.3 The Special Number, e

7.3.4 The Function ln|x|

7.3.5 Logarithm Functions

7.4 Exercises

8.1 The Chain Rule And Derivatives Of Inverse Func-

8.1.1 The Chain Rule

8.1.2 Implicit Diﬀerentiation And Derivatives Of Inverse Functions

8.2 Exercises

8.3.1 Logarithmic Diﬀerentiation

8.4 Exercises

8.5 The Inverse Trigonometric Functions

8.6. THE HYPERBOLIC AND INVERSE HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS 159

8.6 The Hyperbolic And Inverse Hyperbolic Functions

8.7 Exercises

8.8 L’Hˆopital’s Rule

8.8.1 Interest Compounded Continuously

8.9 Exercises

8.10 Related Rates

8.11 Exercises

8.12 The Derivative And Optimization

8.13 Exercises

8.14 The Newton Raphson Method

8.15 Exercises

9.1 Initial Value Problems

9.2 Areas

9.3 Area Between Graphs

9.4 Exercises

9.5 The Method Of Substitution

9.6 Exercises

9.7 Integration By Parts

9.8 Exercises

9.9 Trig. Substitutions

9.10 Exercises

9.11 Partial Fractions

9.12 Rational Functions Of Trig. Functions

9.13 Exercises

9.14. PRACTICE PROBLEMS FOR ANTIDERIVATIVES 203

9.14 Practice Problems For Antiderivatives

9.15 Volumes

9.16 Exercises

9.17 Lengths And Areas Of Surfaces Of Revolution

9.18 Exercises

9.19 The Equation y + ay = 0

9.20 Exercises

9.21 Force On A Dam And Work Of A Pump

9.22 Exercises

10.1 Upper And Lower Sums

10.2 Exercises

10.3. FUNCTIONS OF RIEMANN INTEGRABLE FUNCTIONS 231

10.3 Functions Of Riemann Integrable Functions

10.4 Properties Of The Integral

10.5. FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS 237

10.5 Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus

10.6 Exercises

10.7 Return Of The Wild Assumption

10.8 Exercises

10.9 Techniques Of Integration

10.9.1 The Method Of Substitution

10.9.2 Integration By Parts

10.10 Exercises

10.11 Improper Integrals

10.12 Exercises

Inﬁnite Series

11.1 Approximation By Taylor Polynomials

11.2 Exercises

11.3 Inﬁnite Series Of Numbers

11.3.1 Basic Considerations

11.3.2 More Tests For Convergence

11.3.3 Double Series

11.4 Exercises

11.5 Taylor Series

11.5.1 Operations On Power Series

11.6 Exercises

11.7 Some Other Theorems

Vector Valued Functions

12.1 Algebra in Rn

12.2 Exercises

12.3 Distance in Rn

12.4 Exercises

12.5 Lines in Rn

12.6 Exercises

12.7 Open And Closed Sets

12.8 Exercises

12.9 Vectors

12.10 Exercises

Vector Products

13.1 The Dot Product

13.2. THE GEOMETRIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DOT PRODUCT 313

13.2 The Geometric Signiﬁcance Of The Dot Product

13.2.1 The Angle Between Two Vectors

13.2.2 Work And Projections

13.4.2 Torque

13.4.3 The Box Product

13.5 Exercises

13.6 Vector Identities And Notation

13.7 Exercises

14.1 Exercises

14.2 Continuous Functions

14.2.1 Suﬃcient Conditions For Continuity

14.3 Exercises

14.4 Limits Of A Function

14.5 Exercises

14.6 The Limit Of A Sequence

14.6.1 Sequences And Completeness

14.6.2 Continuity And The Limit Of A Sequence

14.7. PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 343

14.7 Properties Of Continuous Functions

14.8 Exercises

14.9 Some Advanced Calculus

Limits And Derivatives

15.1 Limits Of A Vector Valued Function

15.2 The Derivative And Integral

15.2.1 Geometric And Physical Signiﬁcance Of The Derivative

15.2.2 Diﬀerentiation Rules

15.3 Leibniz’s Notation

15.4 Exercises

15.5 Newton’s Laws Of Motion

15.5.1 Kinetic Energy

15.5.2 Impulse And Momentum

15.6 Exercises

15.7 Systems Of Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations

15.7.1 Picard Iteration

15.7.2 Numerical Methods For Diﬀerential Equations

15.8 Exercises

Line Integrals

16.1 Arc Length And Orientations

16.2 Line Integrals And Work

16.3 Exercises

16.4 Motion On A Space Curve

16.5 Exercises

16.6. INDEPENDENCE OF PARAMETERIZATION 385

16.6 Independence Of Parameterization

The Circular Functions Again

17.1 The Equations Of Undamped And Damped Oscil-

17.2 Exercises

Curvilinear Coordinate Systems

18.1 Polar Cylindrical And Spherical Coordinates

18.2. THE ACCELERATION IN POLAR COORDINATES 399

18.2 The Acceleration In Polar Coordinates

18.3 Planetary Motion

18.4 Exercises

Linear Algebra

19.1 Matrices

19.1.1 Finding The Inverse Of A Matrix

19.2 Exercises

19.3 Linear Transformations

19.3.1 Least Squares Problems

19.3.2 The Least Squares Regression Line

19.3.3 The Fredholm Alternative

19.4 Exercises

19.5 Moving Coordinate Systems

19.5.1 The Coriolis Acceleration

19.5.2 The Coriolis Acceleration On The Rotating Earth

19.6 Exercises

19.7 Determinants

19.8 Exercises

19.9. THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF DETERMINANTS 447

19.9 The Mathematical Theory Of Determinants

19.14 Exercises

Functions Of Many Variables

20.1 The Graph Of A Function Of Two Variables

20.2 The Directional Derivative

20.3 Exercises

20.4 Mixed Partial Derivatives

20.5. THE LIMIT OF A FUNCTION OF MANY VARIABLES 475

20.5 The Limit Of A Function Of Many Variables

20.6 Exercises

20.7 Approximation With A Tangent Plane

20.8 Exercises

20.9 Diﬀerentiation And The Chain Rule

20.9.1 The Chain Rule

20.9.2 Diﬀerentiation And The Derivative

20.10 Exercises

20.11 The Gradient

20.12 Exercises

20.13 Nonlinear Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations Local

20.14 Lagrange Multipliers

20.15 Exercises

20.16 Taylor’s Formula For Functions Of Many Vari-

20.16.1 Some Linear Algebra

20.16.2 The Second Derivative Test

20.17 Exercises

The Riemann Integral On Rn

21.1 Methods For Double Integrals

21.2 Exercises

21.3 Methods For Triple Integrals

21.4 Exercises With Answers

21.5 Exercises

21.6 Diﬀerent Coordinates

21.7 Exercises With Answers

21.8 Exercises

21.9 The Moment Of Inertia

21.9.1 The Spinning Top

21.9.2 Kinetic Energy

21.9.3 Finding The Moment Of Inertia And Center Of Mass

21.10 Exercises

21.11 Theory Of The Riemann Integral

21.11.1 Basic Properties

21.11.2 Iterated Integrals

21.11.3 Some Observations

The Integral On Other Sets

22.1 Exercises With Answers

22.2 Exercises

Vector Calculus

23.1 Divergence And Curl Of A Vector Field

23.2 Exercises

23.3 The Divergence Theorem

23.4 Exercises

23.5. SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM 603

23.5 Some Applications Of The Divergence Theorem

23.5.1 Hydrostatic Pressure

23.5.2 Archimedes Law Of Buoyancy

23.5.3 Equations Of Heat And Diﬀusion

23.5.4 Balance Of Mass

23.5.5 Balance Of Momentum

23.5.6 The Wave Equation

23.5.7 A Negative Observation

23.6 Exercises

23.7 Stokes Theorem

23.7.1 Green’s Theorem

23.8 Green’s Theorem Again

23.9 Stoke’s Theorem From Green’s Theorem

23.9.1 Conservative Vector Fields

23.9.2 Maxwell’s Equations And The Wave Equation

23.10 Exercises