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US Army - Hydraulics FM 5-499

US Army - Hydraulics FM 5-499

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FM 5-499
C1
Change 1
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 12 December 2001
Hydraulics
1. Change FM 5-499, 01 August 1997, as follows:
Remove Old Pages
Insert New Pages
7-11 and 7-12
7-11 and 7-12
2. A bar (I) marks new or changed material.
3. File this transmittal sheet in front of the publication.
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
ERIC K. SHINSEKI
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0203503
DISTRIBUTION:
Active Army, US Army Reserve, and Army National Guard: To be distributed in accordance
with the initial distribution number 115487, requirements for FM 5-499.
FM 5-499
i
FM 5-499
Field Manual
Headquarters
No. 5-499
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 1 August 1997
Hydraulics
Table of Contents
Page
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii
Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii
Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
PREFACE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x i v
CHAPTER 1. Hydraulic Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
1-1. Pressure and Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1-2. Pascal’s Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1-3. Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Velocit y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Flow Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1-4. Energy, Work, and Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Potential Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Kinetic Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Heat Energy and Friction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Relationship Between Velocity and Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Wor k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
CHAPTER 2. Hydraulic Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1
2-1. Basic Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Hydraulic J ack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Motor-Reversing System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Open-Center System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Closed-Center System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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