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Module2 Human Development Key Points

Module2 Human Development Key Points

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Published by: Charles Reginald K. Hwang on Nov 01, 2010
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Module 2: Human Development
 
Human Development
 
is a pattern of movement or change that begins at conceptionand continues throughout the life span
involves interwoven and interdependent processes
physical
processes: changes in an individual’sbiological nature (maturation)
cognitive
processes: changes in an individual’sthought, intelligence, and language
socioemotional
processes: changes in an individual’srelationships with other people, changes in emotions,and changes in personality
can be characterized as
lifelong:
No age period dominates development 
multidimensiona
l:
Development consists of the physical,cognitive, socioemotional processes or dimensions
multidirectiona
l:
development may increase or decrease
plastic:
 
Development is not the same for all as it generally depends on the individual's lifecircumstances
historically embedded:
 
Historical conditionsinfluence development 
multidisciplinary
:
The study of human development isa field shared by psychologists, sociologists,anthropologists, neuroscientists and medicalresearchers
contextual:
 
 A person’s biological makeup, physicalenvironment, social, historical, and cultural contextsare all important contributing factors to development 
1.In the process of understanding human development, it is importantto look into the key issues and questions usually raised in thediscussion
Is development
continuous or discontinuous
?
Is there such a thing as a
critical period
in development?
Are
life
 
span approaches better than stage-specificapproaches
?
Is development influenced by
nature or nurture?
 
2.There are several theories (depending on one’s perspective orapproach) that one can use to explain and understand humandevelopment
Psychoanalytic Approach:
development is basicallymotivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that arenot conscious to individuals
Freud’s theory
suggests that unconscious forcesact to determine personality, behavior, anddevelopment.
Erikson’s psychosocial theory
suggests thatdevelopmental change occurs throughout life span ineight distinct stages; emerging in a fixed pattern thatare similar for all people; each stage presents a crisisor conflict that the individual must resolve; theindividual must at least address the crisis of eachstage sufficiently to deal with demands made duringthe next stage of development.
Cognitive Approach:
focuses on the processes that allowpeople to know, understand and think about the world. The cognitive perspective emphasizes how peopleinternally represent and think about the world.
 Jean Piaget
proposed that all people pass in afixed sequence through a series of universalstages of cognitive development. In each stage,there is an increase in the quantity of informationand the quality of knowledge and understanding.Piaget suggests that the growth in children’sunderstanding of the world can be explained bytwo basic principles,
assimilation
(the process inwhich people understand an experience in termsof their current state of cognitive developmentand way of thinking) and
accommodation
(changes in existing ways of thinking in responseto encounters with new stimuli or events).
Behavioral Approach
proposes that the keys tounderstanding development are observable behavior andoutside stimuli in the environment. Developmentalpatterns are viewed as personal, reflecting a particular setof environmental stimuli, and development is the result of continuing exposure to specific factors in the environment.
 
 John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner’s
theories of 
classical and operant conditioning
hold thatall behavior is learned as a response to externalstimuli.
Social-cognitive learning theorist
AlbertBandura, on the other hand, proposed thatbehavior is learned through observation andimitation, not conditioning through reinforcementor punishment.
Humanistic Approach
contends that people have anatural tendency to make decisions about their lives andcontrol their behavior. The humanistic perspectiveemphasizes free will, the ability of humans to make choicesand come to decisions about their lives.
Carl Rogers
suggested that all people have aneed for positive regard that results from anunderlying wish to be loved and respected. Theirview of themselves and their self-worth is areflection of how they think others view them
Abraham Maslow
suggests that self-actualization is a primary goal in life. Self-actualization is a state of self-fulfillment in whichpeople achieve their highest potential in their ownunique way
Sociocultural Approach or the Ecological model
, themajor proponent of which is Urie Bronfenbrenner, seeks toexplain individual knowledge, development, andcompetencies in terms of the guidance, support, andstructure provided by society and to explain social changeover time in terms of the cumulative effect of individualchoices (Berger, 2000)
Russian psychologist Lev Vygotskys
sociocultural theory
proposes that a fullunderstanding of development is impossiblewithout taking into account the culture in whichchildren develop.

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